Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS FORUMS PUBLISH ARTICLE
 
 

Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Crop Plants

BY: Rekha Sonadi | Category: Agriculture | Submitted: 2017-07-16 07:19:41
       No Photo
Article Summary: "We have made great progress in understanding the responses of plants to abiotic stress. There are inherent physical, morphological and molecular limitations to the plant's ability to respond to stress..."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Crop Plants
Authors: Rekha Sodani, Seema, Jyoti Chauhan, Sunita Chaudhary

Abiotic stress is defined as the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment. The non-living variable must influence the environment beyond its normal range of variation to adversely affect the population performance or individual physiology of the organism in a significant way. Abiotic stress is essentially unavoidable. Abiotic stress affects animals, but plants are especially dependent on environmental factors, so it is particularly constraining. Abiotic stress is the most harmful factor concerning the growth and productivity of crops worldwide (Gao, Ji-Ping; et al.,2007). Many research have also shown that abiotic stressors are at their most harmful when they occur together, in combinations of abiotic stress factors Mittler, Ron (2006).

Most abiotic stresses includes :

1. Water stress

2. High temperature stress

3. Chilling stress

4. Salinity stress

5. Heavy metal stress

6. Oxidative stress

Effect of water stress on crop plants:

Plants experience water stress either when the water supply to their roots becomes limiting, or when the transpiration rate becomes intense. Water stress is primarily caused by a water deficit, such as a drought or high soil salinity Wilting is the first obvious effect of water stress because turgor pressure, which inflates plant cells and keeps them erect, is lost. The amount of water, sunlight and carbon dioxide available to the plant directly influences the amount of food a plant can produce. When water levels are low due to water stress, photosynthesis can slow or even stop. Low availability of water reduce respiration and transpiration and ultimately reduce crop production.

Effect of High temperature stress on crop plants:

At very high temperatures cause severe cellular injury and cell death may occur within short time, thus leading to a catastrophic collapse of cellular organization (Schoffl et al., 1999). However, under moderately high temperatures, the injury can only occur after longer exposure to such a temperature however the plant efficiency can be severely affected. High temperature directly affect injuries such as protein denaturation and aggregation, and increased fluidity of membrane lipids . Other indirect or slower heat injuries involve inactivation of enzymes in chloroplast and mitochondria , protein degradation, inhibition of protein synthesis , and loss of membrane integrity. Heat stress associated injuries ultimately lead to starvation, inhibition of growth, reduced ion flux, production of toxic compounds and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Immediately after exposure to high temperature stress the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), protein with 10 to 200 kDa, is supposed to be involved in signal transduction during heat stress.

Effect of chilling stress on crop plants:

Freezing temperatures induce dehydrative stress on plants, as water absorption in the root and water transport in the plant decreases (Smallwood et al., 2002) Water in and between cells in the plant freezes and expands, causing tissue damage. Symptoms of extracellular freezing include structural damage, dehydration, and necrosis. If intracellular freezing occurs, it will lead to death. Freezing injury is a result of lost permeability, plasmolysis, and post-thaw cell bursting.

Effect of salinity stress on crop plants:

Salt water has more salt and as a result, the hardness of the water is more. When the roots absorb the water, the salt, which in itself is a solid, gets in more and as a result, the minerals essential for the growth is not provided. So, for these minerals, the roots try to do more work but, the plant has less food for itself and therefore, it cannot let any part do more or less work.

Effect of heavy metal stress on crop plants:

Excessive heavy metal accumulation in plant tissue impairs either directly or indirectly several biochemical, physiological, and morphological functions in plants and in turns interferes with crop productivity. Heavy metals reduce crop productivity by inducing deleterious effects to various physiological processes in plants including: seed germination, accumulation and remobilization of seed reserves during germination, plant growth, and photosynthesis. At the cellular level, heavy metal toxicity reduces crop productivity by producing reactive oxygen species, disturbing the redox balance and causing oxidative stress.

Effect of oxidative stress in crop plants:

Oxidative stress is a component of many abiotic stress conditions such as drought, high temperature stress, salinity and heavy metal stress and biotic stress conditions such as herbivory and plant pathogen interactions. During these stress conditions, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, potentially resulting in oxidations of DNA, proteins and lipids.

References:

Gao, Ji-Ping; et al. (2007). "Understanding Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms: Recent Studies on Stress Response in Rice". Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 49 (6): 742-750.: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00495.x .

Mittler, Ron (2006). "Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination".Trends in Plant Science. 11 (1): 15-19. : 10.1016/j.tplants.2005.11.002 .

Schoffl, F., Prandl, R., Reindl, A., 1999. Molecular responses to heat stress. In: Shinozaki, K., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. (Eds.), Molecular Responses to Cold, Drought, Heat and Salt Stress in Higher Plants . R. G. Landes Co.,Austin, Texas, pp. 81-98.

Smallwood, Maggie; Bowles, Dianna J. (2002). "Plants in a cold climate" . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . 357 (1423): 831-847.



About Author / Additional Info:
I am persuing ph.D degree from BHU varansi with UGC fellowship

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 47



Additional Articles:

•   Bt Cotton in India: Icebreaking for Transgenics

•   Synchronization of Sources of Growth With Agricultural Research Priorities in India

•   Sterile Insect Technique For Eradicating Harmful Insects

•   Transfection : Techniques Involved and Advantages




Latest Articles in "Agriculture" category:
•   Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

•   Plant Based Edible Vaccine

•   Genetically Modified Food - Yes or No?

•   Agricultural Biotechnology - Definition and Various Products

•   Career Opportunities in Agriculture Science

•   Synthetic Seed Production and Application

•   Role of Biotechnology in Agriculture | Various Agricultural Technologies

•   Biofortification - A Technique Used in Agriculture

•   Biotechnology in Agriculture Development

•   Biotechnology in Animal Feed and Feeding

•   Biofertilizers: Types, Benefits and Applications

•   Genetically Modified Food - Advantages and Disadvantages

•   Genetically Modified Crops as Medicine

•   Cryopreservation and Conservation of Plant Genetic Material

•   Biotechnology and the Coconut

•   Biotechnology in Rice Farming

•   Bt Corn: Method, Mode of Action and Benefits

•   Safe Insecticides For the Environment

•   Plant Growth Promoting Substances



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us