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Foot and Mouth Disease in Animals

BY: A. S. Gawali | Category: Agriculture | Submitted: 2017-03-21 11:24:35
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Article Summary: "Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly communicable viral disease caused by an Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. Livestock hosts include cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. The disease is characterized by fever and vesicles in the mouth and on the muzzle, teats, and feet and is spread through direct contact or aerosolized .."

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Authors: A.S.Gawali*, K. S. Palekar, S. M. Jadhav
(Assistant Professor, K. K.Wagh College of Agricultural biotechnology, Nashik.)

Foot and Mouth Disease: Causal organism:-Apthovirus

1. It is most contagious disease.
2. It affects cattle, sheep, goats & pigs.
3. Characterized by fever & vesicle on feet, mouth & udder.
4. Cause death in young animal & severe cases losses in lactating cattle.
5. Cause economic losses in cow & buffalo
6. The FMD virus first shown in 1897 by Fridrich Loeffler.
7. Mortality % deshi animal 2-3% & crossbreeds 10-20%


Mouth disease:-

1. Primary symptom animal is sluggish.
2. Decline milk production.
3. Body temp. increases 104-105
4. Few hours of sluggishment secrete saliva rapidly in the form of long wire.
5. Special way of mouth motion.
6. Hanging tongue.
7. If examine, vesicle formed on tongue.
8. Vesicle increase in size & rupture & secrete yellow fluid.
9. After 6-15 days vesicle clear.
10. Lesions painful, animal not take dry fodder only green are taken.

Foot disease:-

1. First symptom is lameness.
2. Occur 4-5 days after occurance of vesicle in mouth.
3. Vesicle formed between hoofs.
4. Vesicles rupture & secrete yellow fluid.
5. In sheep & pig foot disease is general than mouth.
6. Lactating animal _udder is affected _decrease in production.
7. Period of disease 2-3 weeks.
8. Disappear of disease from herd & village 1-2 month.


1. Wash mouth lesions with Boric acid 15g in 1lit water, or Alum 5g in 1lit water.
2. For foot wound dissolve zinc oxide or CuSO4 40g in 1 lit water.
3. wash wound with 1g KMnO4 in 3lit water & apply cream
e.g.: - VAS, Himax, calendula
4. Wash 3-4 times foot wound with 0.5% lime water.
5. Proper advice should be taken by the Veterinary doctor.

Preventive measures

1. Separate disease animal from herd.
2. Sterilize cattle-shed with 1-2% lime, 1-9% formalin, and 4% sodium bi-carbonate.
3. Sterilize cloth of labour.
4. If animal are die burried them 4-5 m deep with lime & soil
5. For avoid disease vaccination is important

Banarjee, G.C. : Textbook of Animal Husbandry

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