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Production of Protein Rich Feed For RuminantsBY: Amna Adnan | Category: Agriculture | Submitted: 2010-12-07 23:47:21
Article Summary: "Ruminants are animals which store their food in the rumen by softening it and then chew it. Scientists have succeeded in making protein rich feed for them which will increase the production of milk..."
Digestion of nitrogenous substances (egg proteins) in ruminants is a complicated process. Proteins are hydrolyzed in the rumen, split into their constituent amino acids, which are rapidly broken down to form ammonia and fatty acids. The rate of proteolysis in the rumen is closely related to the solubility of proteins in the rumen fluid.
For example, only 15% of the protein contained in a silo enters the small intestine undigested. As for other commodities, its digestibility can vary from 20 to 40%.
This leads to the formation of high boiling sources of protein. An average of 1000 g digestible organic matter produces 130 g of microbial protein.
In the diet of ruminant animals, almost 60-90% of protein requirements are met by microbial protein. Under normal circumstances, a small portion of ammonia is absorbed into the blood vessels of the animal. This part of the "ammonia" can be reused in rumen which enters in it through saliva.
It is shown through research that crude protein is used in the body in different ways. It can be split into a digestible protein and amides. Amides (usually less valuable to the animal) are absorbed through the rumen wall and are converted into ammonia. In response the ammonia is used by microorganisms and converted into microbial protein. Ultimately, microbial protein passes into small intestine.
Conversion of feed protein:
Feed protein is converted into three main areas;
- A microbial protein,
- Non split in the rumen protein
- In the carbohydrate part, formed by deamination.
This non split protein is not utilized by micro flora. It is not hydrolyzed in the rumen, but when it reaches in the small intestine it breaks down into amino acids. For this reason, diets for ruminant animals contain large amounts of corn gluten (gluten) and coconut flour because they already have non-over boiled proteins in their composition. Therefore, in countries where the fodder used in relatively large quantities of non-complex composition of feed, as well as sources in which carbohydrates have high boiling rate, the effect of such no splitting raw materials in the rumen is considerable.
Different feedstuffs are digested in the intestines and are broken down in the rumen protein. For example, conventional soybean meal has a rather high number of splits in the rumen proteins; most amino acids are used by rumen micro flora. This leads to the fact that fewer amino acids change in the small intestine.
By processing, the raw materials can provide less disintegration of the protein in the rumen and a greater yield of digestible protein in the small intestine. It enhances the formation of amino acids in the small intestine
Special treatment of feed for ruminants has increased the amount of digestible protein in the intestine. It leads to a higher content of amino acids in the intestine. This, in turn, helps to increase milk yields.
Thus, the utilization of nitrogen (protein) in the body affected by three main factors:
- The degree of splitting or non splitting in the rumen,
- The quality and quantity of microbial protein
- The quantity of endogenous protein passes into the intestine.
Studies conducted in the decade of 50s showed that the efficacy of casein, which is almost completely delaminated in the rumen, significantly increased both in its infusion in 12 duodenal ulcers, and feeding them after the heat treatment, which reduces its solubility. It was shown that such processed ("protected") sources of protein provided a favorable effect on the body of ruminant animals. Such treatment reduces the solubility of proteins without disrupting their ability to dissolve in the abomasums and intestines, or without violating the revenue in the small intestine. It has no adverse effect on rumen function, health and productivity of animals.
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