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Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of Pigeon PeaBY: Dr. Smita Puri | Category: Agriculture | Submitted: 2017-03-24 08:56:44
Article Summary: "Sterility mosaic is an important disease of pigeon pea. This viral disease is transmitted by an Eriophyid mite and causes huge losses in pigeon pea cultivation world wide..."
Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of Pigeon Pea
Author: Dr. Smita Puri
Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeon pea was first described in 1931 from Pusa, Bihar State, India and subsequently from the rest of India, and other pigeon pea-growing countries in Asia. However, this disease is not known to occur in Africa or the Americas.
This disease is found all over the India, especially Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh causing severe loss to the crop.
The losses caused by this disease are variable and depends on the age of the crop. It has been established that : At <45 days old plants, SMD infection results in 95 to 100% yield loss, while at late plant stage (>45 days old plants) infection depends on the level of infection (i.e., number of affected branches per plant) and range from 26 to 97%. Seeds from partially affected plants are discolored and shriveled, with about 20% reduction in dry weight, and fetch poor price. It is estimated that SMD result in an annual yield loss of over US$300 million in India alone.
Symptoms of the disease
The disease is sometimes referred as “Green Plague” because at flowering time, affected plants remains green with excessive vegetative growth and have no flowers or seed pods. Under suitable conditions, the disease spreads rapidly like a plague, leading to severe epidemics.
Characteristic disease symptoms are complete or partial cessation of flower production (sterility), mosaic or chlorotic ringspot symptoms on leaves, excessive vegetative growth, stunting, and reduction in leaf size.
However, the symptoms of SM vary according to the pigeon pea genotypes and 3 types of symptoms are found.
Symptoms also vary according to the time of infection. Infection in susceptible genotypes at <30 to 45 days old plants results in the expression of characteristic disease symptoms in 10 to 15 days and almost complete cessation of flowering, but leaf symptoms become masked as plants grow. Later infection in susceptible cultivars (>50 to 60 days old plants) results in slightly delayed symptom development and then only mild mosaic symptoms on only a few branches or parts of branches, and such plants show reduced flowering (20 to 50%). However, after rationing or severe pruning, new growth from such plants shows severe mosaic symptoms and complete sterility.
Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Virus (PPSMV) causes SM disease and it is
a species of the genus Emaravirus. The virus is not sap transmissible but can be transmitted by Eriophyid mite (Aceria cajani) (Acari: Arthropoda) and Grafting. Diseased plants left in fields after harvest, on field banks, or in kitchen gardens, and the presence of perennial pigeonpea or wild relatives of pigeonpea such as C. scarabaeoides serve as primary inoculum sources.
Control of sterility mosaic disease/mite vector
About Author / Additional Info:
I am a Scientist (Plant Pathology) at JNKVV, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar, M.P.
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