Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article

Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of Pigeon Pea

BY: Dr. Smita Puri | Category: Agriculture | Submitted: 2017-03-24 08:56:44
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Sterility mosaic is an important disease of pigeon pea. This viral disease is transmitted by an Eriophyid mite and causes huge losses in pigeon pea cultivation world wide..."

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of Pigeon Pea
Author: Dr. Smita Puri

Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeon pea was first described in 1931 from Pusa, Bihar State, India and subsequently from the rest of India, and other pigeon pea-growing countries in Asia. However, this disease is not known to occur in Africa or the Americas.

This disease is found all over the India, especially Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh causing severe loss to the crop.

Economic Importance

The losses caused by this disease are variable and depends on the age of the crop. It has been established that : At <45 days old plants, SMD infection results in 95 to 100% yield loss, while at late plant stage (>45 days old plants) infection depends on the level of infection (i.e., number of affected branches per plant) and range from 26 to 97%. Seeds from partially affected plants are discolored and shriveled, with about 20% reduction in dry weight, and fetch poor price. It is estimated that SMD result in an annual yield loss of over US$300 million in India alone.

Symptoms of the disease

The disease is sometimes referred as “Green Plague” because at flowering time, affected plants remains green with excessive vegetative growth and have no flowers or seed pods. Under suitable conditions, the disease spreads rapidly like a plague, leading to severe epidemics.

Characteristic disease symptoms are complete or partial cessation of flower production (sterility), mosaic or chlorotic ringspot symptoms on leaves, excessive vegetative growth, stunting, and reduction in leaf size.

However, the symptoms of SM vary according to the pigeon pea genotypes and 3 types of symptoms are found.

  1. • Severe mosaic and sterility
  2. • Mild mosaic with partial sterility and
  3. • Chlorotic ring spots without any noticeable sterility.

Symptoms also vary according to the time of infection. Infection in susceptible genotypes at <30 to 45 days old plants results in the expression of characteristic disease symptoms in 10 to 15 days and almost complete cessation of flowering, but leaf symptoms become masked as plants grow. Later infection in susceptible cultivars (>50 to 60 days old plants) results in slightly delayed symptom development and then only mild mosaic symptoms on only a few branches or parts of branches, and such plants show reduced flowering (20 to 50%). However, after rationing or severe pruning, new growth from such plants shows severe mosaic symptoms and complete sterility.

Causal Organism-

Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Virus (PPSMV) causes SM disease and it is

a species of the genus Emaravirus. The virus is not sap transmissible but can be transmitted by Eriophyid mite (Aceria cajani) (Acari: Arthropoda) and Grafting. Diseased plants left in fields after harvest, on field banks, or in kitchen gardens, and the presence of perennial pigeonpea or wild relatives of pigeonpea such as C. scarabaeoides serve as primary inoculum sources.

Conducive conditions

  1. • Crops grown under irrigation or near irrigated fields are the most vulnerable to early SMD infection.
  2. • Continuous cropping of pigeonpea in the same field.

Control of sterility mosaic disease/mite vector

  1. • Soil application of phorate 10g @ 1kg ai/ha at sowing + foliar spray with monocrotophos on 30th day after sowing.
  2. • Seed treatment with aldicarb 10G protected the crop from sterility mosaic for two months under glasshouse conditions.
  3. • Treatment of seeds or soil with pesticides like carbofuran provided early protection against SMD upto 45 days.
  4. • Spraying acaricides from early stages of the crop reduces the disease/mite. So, dicofol at 0.05% sprayed 30 and 45 days after sowing recorded least number of vector mites with the lowest disease incidence followed by wettable sulphur 0.2%, monocrotophos 0.04% and ethion 0.1%. Hence an application of dicofol 0.05% was recommended between 30 and 45 days after sowing in endemic areas followed by a repeat application, if necessary after 15 days.
  5. • Growing resistant varieties such as Bahar, ICPL-151 and Hyd 3C is the most feasible method of disease control.
  6. • Breaking pigeon pea cycle by crop rotation, changing sowing date etc. is also helpful in reducing the disease severity.
  7. • Destroying the infected plants during crop season and voluntary diseased plants during the off- season also reduces the sources of primary inoculum.

About Author / Additional Info:
I am a Scientist (Plant Pathology) at JNKVV, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Sagar, M.P.

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)

Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 265

Additional Articles:

•   Overview of Biomolecules

•   Can Stem Cell Based Therapies Be Used in Treating Diabetes? Part-1

•   Biogas Formation and an Urge For Its Intensive Utilization

•   Transgenic Plants - The Impact on Environment

Latest Articles in "Agriculture" category:
•   Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

•   Plant Based Edible Vaccine

•   Genetically Modified Food - Yes or No?

•   Agricultural Biotechnology - Definition and Various Products

•   Career Opportunities in Agriculture Science

•   Synthetic Seed Production and Application

•   Role of Biotechnology in Agriculture | Various Agricultural Technologies

•   Biofortification - A Technique Used in Agriculture

•   Biotechnology in Agriculture Development

•   Biotechnology in Animal Feed and Feeding

•   Biofertilizers: Types, Benefits and Applications

•   Genetically Modified Food - Advantages and Disadvantages

•   Genetically Modified Crops as Medicine

•   Cryopreservation and Conservation of Plant Genetic Material

•   Biotechnology and the Coconut

•   Biotechnology in Rice Farming

•   Bt Corn: Method, Mode of Action and Benefits

•   Safe Insecticides For the Environment

•   Plant Growth Promoting Substances

Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 - Do not copy articles from this website.

Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  

  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us