Publish Your Articles Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Introduction and Significant Role of Alkaline PhosphatasesBY: Kirti Rani | Category: Applications | Submitted: 2012-07-15 05:00:38
Article Summary: "Immensity of alkaline phosphatases is found to be evolutionary in various modern molecular and clinical lab techniques which are used for betterment of mankind..."
Alkaline phosphatase is homodimeric metalloenzyme which hydrolyzes the phosphomonoester into inorganic phosphate and corresponding alcohol or remove terminal monoesterified phosphate from ribo-oligonucleotide, deoxyribo-oligonucleotides, alkaloids and proteins etc.as valuable reagent. Commonly three types of alkaline phosphatase have been found in human liver, kidney, intestine, placental and bones. Serum alkaline phosphatase is markedly elevated in different types of liver and bones diseases as well as in congestive heart failure, hyperparathyroidism and intestinal diseases. Alkaline phosphatase have also been found in variety of micro-organism including E.coli, Pseudomonas, Aerobacter and Bacillus species. Alkaline phosphatase is also an important tool in molecular cloning and DNA sequencing.
Role of various types of alkaline phosphatases:
In bacteria, alkaline phosphatase is present in the periplasmic space. While in animals, its isomers are found in the he liver (isoenzyme ALP-I) and bone (isoenzyme ALP-II). There are also small amounts produced by cells lining the intestines (isoenzyme ALP-III), the placenta, and the kidney (in the proximal convoluted tubules). Where alkaline phosphatases act by splitting off phosphorus (an acidic mineral) creating an alkaline pH to residing environment. The primary importance of measuring serum alkaline phosphatase is to check the possibility of degeneration of bone (osteoporosis) and or liver (hepatobillary diseases). Thus, the serum alkaline phosphatase is a measure of the integrity of the hepatobiliary system and the flow of bile into the small intestine too. The growing children have higher level of serum alkaline phosphates than full-grown adults.
The most common alkaline phosphatases used in modern research are bacterial alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp.; shrimp alkaline phosphatase from Arctic shrimp (Pandalus borealis); Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase and Placental alkaline phosphatase. Another latest application of alkaline phosphatase is its use as a bio-marker/label for enzyme immunoassays and ELISA.
There are two immense uses for alkaline phosphatase in DNA modification:
1. Removal of 5' phosphates from plasmid and bacteriophage vectors by restriction enzyme. In subsequent ligation reactions, this incision prevents self-ligation to facilitate the ligation of other DNA fragments into the vector (e.g. subcloning).
2. Removal of 5' phosphates from fragments of DNA prior to labeling with radioactive phosphate
This type of dephosphorylation of DNAs was recommended with conducted 5'-recessed ends by using higher concentration of alkaline phosphatase at higher temperatures.
About Author / Additional Info:
Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University, sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
Office Phone no: +91-120-4392946
Mobile No: +91-9990329492
Email ID: email@example.com, Kirtisharma2k@rediffmail.com
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• 21 Century Medicinal Status: Regenerative Medicine (RM)
• Microbial Production of Vitamin B12
• Medicinal Plants: A Boon to Combat Oxidative Stress
• DNA Sequencing: Method, Benefits and Applications
Latest Articles in "Applications" category:
• Flavor Biotechnology: Part -1
• Flavor Biotechnology: Part -2
• Genetic Engineering Extended the Shelf-life of Fruits
• Biomedical Informatics - From Cells to Populations in the IT Way
• The Concept of Biotechnology: Understanding Various Applications/Uses
• In Vitro Fertilization Procedure - Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages
• Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting
• Directed Evolution
• Fermentation, and its Control
• Advanced Fermentation Control Strategies
• Methods of Purification of Enzymes
• Extremophilic Microbes - Organisms Living in Extreme Conditions
• Colorful Bacteria
• Importance of Phytoremediation
• Conservation of Microbes
• Sewage Bacteria - Strictly Anaerobic, Aerobic and Facultative bacteria
• Microbial Growth Substrates
• Injuries to Microbes
• Asepsis and its Importance
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us