Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article

Microbial Assisted Flocculation for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

BY: Sumit Kumar Dubey | Category: Applications | Submitted: 2016-03-22 05:43:00
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Clumping together of dispersed organic particles to form flocs by the action of certain bacteria and fungi, referred as microbial assisted flocculation or bio-flocculation..."

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

Bio-Flocculation - Microbial Assisted Flocculation for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

Flocculants are the organic or inorganic compounds that promote suspended particles in liquids to agglomerate and to forming a floc. Varieties of flocculants are used in wastewater treatment processes to improve filterability of small particles and sedimentation as well. The term bio-flocculants means the flocculants which derived from biological source. Bio-flocculants have been most widely studied on bacteria (Zakaria, 2012) and fungi (Deng and Ting, 2005). These can be used for flocculation instead of chemical flocculants (that generates harmful by-products). Bio-flocculants are eco-friendly and not producing any harmful byproducts during treatment. Microbial derived bio-flocculants have potential to be used for the treatment of various industrial effluents.

In 2005, Deng and Ting reported Aspergillus parasiticus to produce a bio-flocculants for Kaolin suspension and water-soluble dyes. They were observed 98.1% (after 72 h incubation) of flocculation efficiency of bio-flocculants for Kaolin suspension. After characterization of the bio-flocculants, they found that it was mainly composed of sugar (76.3%) and protein (21.6%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bio-flocculants molecules. This bio-flocculants was also found effective for soluble anionic dyes in aqueous solution. The de-colorization efficiency of bio-flocculants was 92.4 and 92.9% for Reactive Blue (RB) 4 and Acid Yellow (AY) 25 respectively. The amino and amide groups in the bio-flocculent molecule are supposed to play an important role in flocculation from the viewpoint of electrostatic interaction.

In 2008, Zheng et al. were isolated bio-flocculants producing bacteria from soil and identified as Bacillus sp.. They reported that the bio-flocculants produced by isolated Bacillus sp. consisted of sugars (3.6%, w/w), uronic acid (37.0%, w/w), amino sugars (0.5%, w/w) and proteins (16.4%, w/w). FTIR analysis of that bio-flocculants revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl groups.

In 2012, Zakaria was accounted for the production of bio-flocculants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-10145. He studied the effects of carbon-nitrogen sources, pH and temperature for on bio-flocculants production. The effects of cationic compounds on flocculating activity was tested and he observed that the flocculating activity was stimulated by Ca2+, K+, Na+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Cu 2+ whereas inhibited by Fe3+ and Al3+. He was reported 80.50% flocculating activity for kaolin suspension with 1% of bio-flocculants suspension. He also observed the heat stability of bio-flocculants and noted 60.16% reduction in the after heating at 1000C for 60 min. Chemical analyses of the purified bio-flocculants revealed that it was a sugar-protein derivative. It consists of protein (27%, w/w) and carbohydrate (89%, w/w) including neutral sugar, uronic acid and amino sugar as the principal constituents in the relative weight proportions of 30.6%, 2.35% and 0.78% respectively. Additionally, elemental analysis of the bio-flocculants revealed the mass proportion of C, H and N was 19.06%, 3.88% and 4.32 % correspondingly. FTIR analysis showed that it consisted of carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and sugar derivative groups.

Thus bio-flocculants are eco-friendly and appealing candidate in the biological wastewater treatment technology (BWWTT). However, the pilot scale studies of bio-flocculants regarding their sustainability and cost consideration are also required for their implementation in BWWTT at commercial scale.


-Deng S1, Yu G, Ting YP (2005) Production of a bioflocculant by Aspergillus parasiticus and its application in dye removal, Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces; 44(4):179-86.
- Zakaria E. (2012) Production and characteristics of a heavy metals removing bioflocculant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pol J Microbiol; 61(4):281-9.
- Zheng Y, Ye ZL, Fang XL, Li YH, Cai WM. (2008) Production and characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus sp. F19, Bioresour Technol.;99(16):7686-91.

About Author / Additional Info:
Research Scholar-
Research Interest: Biofuels and biological wastewater treatment

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)

Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 986

Additional Articles:

•   Periwinkle- A Medicinal Plant

•   New Dimension of Scope and Career in Microbiology

•   Do Radiations Also Cause Cancer

•   Mutagenesis - Types and Uses

Latest Articles in "Applications" category:
•   Flavor Biotechnology: Part -1

•   Flavor Biotechnology: Part -2

•   Genetic Engineering Extended the Shelf-life of Fruits

•   Biomedical Informatics - From Cells to Populations in the IT Way

•   The Concept of Biotechnology: Understanding Various Applications/Uses

•   In Vitro Fertilization Procedure - Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

•   Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

•   Directed Evolution

•   Fermentation, and its Control

•   Advanced Fermentation Control Strategies

•   Methods of Purification of Enzymes

•   Extremophilic Microbes - Organisms Living in Extreme Conditions

•   Colorful Bacteria

•   Importance of Phytoremediation

•   Conservation of Microbes

•   Sewage Bacteria - Strictly Anaerobic, Aerobic and Facultative bacteria

•   Microbial Growth Substrates

•   Injuries to Microbes

•   Asepsis and its Importance

Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 - Do not copy articles from this website.

Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  

  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us