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Author: Sandhya Anand

No Photo Total Articles: 68 | Total Views: 774851 | Points Scored: 808,851

City: Bangalore | State: Karnataka

About Me: I am a part time faculty in biotechnology and allied subjects.I am also a student wondering at the ways of nature.

Articles by Sandhya Anand:
  • Low Fat Diet to Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer. ( 1571 reads)   

    Two separate team of researchers have found a metabolite of cholesterol to be behind the risk of cancers especially those which are estrogen driven. The mechanism of action is similar to that of estrogen and inhibitors for the metabolite formation (statins) can therefore be alternate therapeutic possibilities. - Category: Press Release
  • What Causes Hunger? - Blame it on the Brain ( 2213 reads)   

    Neurons which are responsible for hunger has been found out by US researchers using techniques of optogenetics. The study which was done in rats revealed the genes responsible for overeating in rats. - Category: Genetics
  • Insights Into Structure of RNA Polymerase Enzyme ( 1403 reads)   

    Researchers have isolated and studied the structure of bacterial Polymerase I revealing the structure-function relationship. Various domains and subunits and their role in structural stability has been accessed via crystallography methods. - Category: Industry News
  • Pathogen Turns Protector - Salt Tolerant Gordonia for Cultivation in Saline Soils ( 2484 reads)   

    The articles focus on the recent discovery of Gordonia sp as an ideal candidate for cultivation of pearl millet in saline soils. Further isolation and gene identification can pave the way for trouble free cultivation of crops in saline soils especially in the tropical and temperate climates. - Category: Industry News
  • Boon From the Soil to Degrade Endosulfan ( 1396 reads)   

    A new strain of Bacillus Sublitis is found to degrade endosulfan the notorious pesticide to non toxic metabolites. The article focuses on the research and development of the strain and its potential benefits to human kind. - Category: Industry News
  • Indices of Species Diversity - Part II ( 15590 reads)   

    The term diversity is quite complex and attempts have been there to confine it within the definitons and mathematical equations. The resultant diversity indices are a key feature of communities which can throw light on many aspects of conservation. The article presents a brief overview of the commonest indices used in ecological studies. - Category: Biology
  • GWAS - The New Age of Genomic Studies ( 3852 reads)   

    GWAS stands for Genome Wide Association Studies. With the availability of Human Genome sequence, Genome Wide Association Studies are being increasing used to explore the association between genotypic variations and phenotypical characters. The article explore the concept, and tools associated with GWAS. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Bioinformatic Approaches to Find Gene-genome Duplication ( 5954 reads)   

    The article discusses the importance of detection of orthologs and bioinformatic methods used in the process. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Proteasomes and Their Biological Significance ( 30784 reads)   

    The article briefly summarizes the importance of proteasomes in drug designing, biological significance and exploratory studies on evolution. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Proteasomes - The Dooms Day Chamber For Proteins ( 3095 reads)   

    Proteasomes are involved in protein degradation and a variety of other cellular processes. The article brings out the roles and importance of proteasomes. - Category: Others
  • Alpha Fetoprotein and its Applications ( 3395 reads)   

    Alpha fetoprotein is a gold standard among tumor markers and a major fetal serum protein.The levels of this protein is indicative a wide range of disorders. The article given a brief about the protein and its significance and further potentials for research. - Category: Healthcare
  • Inducing Polyploidy For Creation of Better Species ( 10360 reads)   

    The role of polyploidy in plant breeding and deciphering evolutionary history is undoubtedly established. The article gives a brief on various processed used in commercial induction of polyploidy for plant breeding. - Category: Agriculture
  • Multigene Families - Types, Evolution and Examples ( 15971 reads)   

    Multigene families have similar sequences in their genome and hence reveal course of evolution among related species or between the individuals. The article describes the types and importance of multigene families in brief. - Category: Genetics
  • Importance of Polyploids | Applications of Polyploidy ( 20871 reads)   

    Polyploidy has been found to play significant role in evolution and has its applications in various fields. The article describes the importance and applications of polyploidy. - Category: Others
  • Polyploidy - Causes and Types ( 21981 reads)   

    Polyploidy or the presence of three or more sets of genomes in an organism is one of the important phenomenon commonly found in plants. The process is central to the evolutionary history since it reveals the pattern of gene duplication and speciation. The article gives a brief account of the causes and different types of polyploidy. - Category: Genetics
  • DNA Markers - The Tools in Genetic Mapping ( 7646 reads)   

    DNA markers are vital tools in gene mapping studies. The article provides the type of DNA markers used in genetic mapping along with their features. - Category: DNA
  • Signal Transduction - Basic Mechanisms and Types of Receptors. ( 8382 reads)   

    The article describes the components of the signal transduction pathways and the major types of receptors involved in signal transduction. - Category: Others
  • Pseudogenes - Function and Origin ( 5417 reads)   

    The article summarizes the origin, location, features and functions of pseudogenes. The pseudogenes were identified during the late 1970s when the function of genes was mapped onto the chromosome locations. They were named pseudogenes since they were thought to have no functionality - Category: DNA
  • Types of Pseudogenes - Decoding Pseudo Notions ( 6844 reads)   

    Psudogenes are DNA sequences which are results of one or more mutations which render them non functional. Apart from these minor changes, the sequences are almost identical to functional gene sequences. - Category: DNA
  • Protein Microarrays - Designed For Decoding Protein Functions. ( 3042 reads)   

    Microarrays have been the latest tools in genomics in identification of genetic variations. The method is now extrapolated to proteomics for identifying the protein interactions. The article gives a brief overview of the technology and types in protein microarrays. - Category: Others
  • Genotyping For Identifying Bacterial Strains ( 4906 reads)   

    The article gives a list of the common procedures employed in bacterial strain identification along with the details. - Category: Applications
  • Bioreactors - Classification and Types ( 78949 reads)   

    Bioreactors are designed to provide a controlled environment for optimal growth of microbes. The article describes the classification and types of bioreactors along with their advantages and disadvantages. - Category: Applications
  • Characteristics of the Population ( 40461 reads)   

    The population is distinctly marked by different characteristics which are unique to the individuals of the population. Major population characteristics which are also the basic parameters needed for ecological studies, there are discussed in this article. - Category: Biology
  • Riboswitches - is RNA Controlling the Genes? ( 5660 reads)   

    Riboswitches are the latest discovery of gene regulation in prokaryotes and have been recently found in eukaryotic systems. The article discusses the origin, discovery,and mechanisms of riboregulation by these non coding mRNAs. - Category: DNA
  • SELEX- Revolutionizing In-vitro Selection of Aptamers ( 6907 reads)   

    SELEX is a process used for in vitro selection of aptamers which are highly specific in binding as well as function due to the nucleotide sequence and shape. The article describes the various steps in the process. - Category: DNA
  • Aptamers : A Novel DNA-RNA Approach in Biotechnological Research ( 3300 reads)   

    Aptamers are oligonucleotide sequences carrying out specific functions. These novel molecules are selected from random pools of such DNA/RNA sequences based on their binding ability and are emerging fast as new method of therapy. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Models For Population Growth ( 9161 reads)   

    Population models form an essential tool to study the dynamics and characteristics of a population. They aim to represent the changes to the population structure over time in mathematical equations. All models, mathematical or otherwise are abstract representations of reality. According to Levins, modeling is a balancing act between three major parameters, generality, realism and precision. - Category: Others
  • DNA Binding Motifs - Part 2 ( 4559 reads)   

    DNA binding motifs serve to bind the transcription factors to the DNA sequence for purposes such as gene expression and regulation. The article gives a brief account of the various motifs. - Category: DNA
  • DNA Binding Motifs - Part 1 ( 6849 reads)   

    Information about Helix Turn Helix Motif and Helix Loop Helix Motif. DNA binding proteins recognize and bind to specific sequences. This binding is supported by the presence of DNA binding motifs which help in positioning the DNA binding sequences in a way so as to facilitate easy and stable binding. The article presents the different types of motifs. - Category: DNA
  • Ecological Succession - Stages and Processes ( 39858 reads)   

    Succession is the process of establishment of stable mature communities in an uninhabited area. There are different stages of succession without which the habitat cannot be returned back to natural forms before disturbances. The article describes the stages and processed involved in succession. Essentially it is a never ending process when longer geological time scales are applied. - Category: Biology
  • Ecological Succession - Causes and Types ( 34112 reads)   

    Succession in ecological systems refer to the changes in ecosystem which result in formation and stabilization of the community in an area after disturbance. The article details the causes and types of succession found in natural ecosystems. - Category: Others
  • Techniques of Epigenetic Studies ( 5893 reads)   

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression and regulation which are independent of the DNA sequences. These changes have been a focus for developing new drugs, studying evolutionary ontologies and studying gene regulation mechanisms. This article summarizes the techniques employed in epigenetic studies and their nature. - Category: DNA
  • Mechanism of Epigenetics ( 25907 reads)   

    Epigenetics is the occurrence of changes in gene expression independent of the DNA sequence. There are different mechanisms through which the process occur and are used as research tools. The article describes the processes involved in epigenetics. - Category: DNA
  • C-Value, An Unsolved Paradox? ( 5785 reads)   

    The C value paradox has been a subject of researchers ever since its discovery. This article attempts to explain the phenomenon and the different theories which has been proposed to explain the mechanism. - Category: DNA
  • Mutagenesis - Types and Uses ( 24283 reads)   

    Mutagenesis refers to any fluctuation of the genome of the organisms by physical or chemical mutagens. The different types and their uses and drawbacks are discussed in the article. - Category: DNA
  • Mapping Functions in Genetics ( 12022 reads)   

    Information about Haldane, Kosambi, Carter-Falconer and Morgan Mapping functions. Construction of linkage maps are based on recombination fractions which are not accurate at higher map distances. Map functions try to redefine the relation between recombination fraction and map distance precisely. The article gives an insight into different map functions in use and their significance. - Category: Genetics
  • Effects of Genetic Drift - Bottleneck and Founder effect ( 22048 reads)   

    Genetic drift is a process in which there are sudden changes in allele frequencies among the generations. The effects of such drift are varied including speciation and genetically isolated demes. The most common effects the genetic bottlenecks and founder effects are discussed in the article. - Category: Genetics
  • Driving Forces of Evolution - Microevolution ( 16648 reads)   

    Evolution is no longer termed as a process which involves large variations between generations. The term microevolution has been coined to refer to the variations between generations. The article gives a brief account of the driving forces of this evolutionary mechanism. - Category: Biology
  • Significance of Keystone Species in Conservation Strategies ( 9790 reads)   

    The article throws light on the importance of keystone species in ecological research. Recent conservation strategies are shifting focus to conservation and preservation of keystone species. Whether or not such efforts will be fruitful and helps to maintain biodiversity is still speculative. - Category: Biology
  • Indices of Species Diversity - Part I ( 6560 reads)   

    Species diversity is one of the most prominent characteristics of community and is the basis of present day conservation approaches. The article presents an overview on the different diversity indices used in ecological studies and their importance. - Category: Biology
  • Deciphering the Phylogenetic Codes ( 2682 reads)   

    Taxonomy is the detailed study of classification of organisms, including the basis, principles and rules of classification. Among the systematic studies, the most popular and currently employed method in finding the evolutionary relationship among different species is the phylogenetic approach. The article gives a brief on the method and principle behind this. - Category: Biology
  • Biomedical Informatics - Career Opportunities For the New Generation ( 3581 reads)   

    Biomedical informatics is the latest buzzword among the biologists and informaticians who would enjoy a career in medicinal field. The increasing medical data has made it necessary for the development of newer tools and systems for effective management. And, biomedical informaticians can provide the solutions. - Category: Careers
  • Antibiotics - The Microbial Defense Weapons ( 4385 reads)   

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous and their contribution to human welfare is immense.Among the most important applications of microbial fermentation in maintenance of health is the production of antibiotics. - Category: Healthcare
  • How to Determine Genetic Linkage? ( 15136 reads)   

    Linkage is greatly used by geneticists to map the entire genome. This article gives a brief of the different methods used to determine linkage. - Category: Genetics
  • Artificial Neural Networks - Thinking Made Easy For Robots ( 3464 reads)   

    Artificial neural networks are inspired greatly by the biological processes. These processes try to mimic the working process and pattern of the biological counterparts. The article presents an overview of the basis, function and different networks involved in the process. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Technoecosystems and Modern Conservation Strategies ( 5520 reads)   

    Biodiversity approaches has been focused towards input or resource management rather than processing the outputs in the recent past. Such a technology has its roots from anthropogenic ecosystems such as technoecosystems where technological developments need to be balanced along with the biodiversity. - Category: Biology
  • Concepts of Productivity: Successive Steps of Productivity in Biology ( 3945 reads)   

    Unlike the nutrients, energy does not cycle through the ecosystem, instead enters the system and gets used up within the ecosystem. The fixation of this energy into usable forms is called productivity and this is an important factor in conservation methodologies. - Category: Biology
  • How to Do a Meta Analysis in Biological Research? Part II ( 3012 reads)   

    Meta analysis studies efficiently analyze the effects of different studies of similar nature. However selection of studies, parameters to be analyzed and methods of analysis should be carefully done so as to give the best results. The article gives a brief guideline to the approach in biological research. - Category: Others
  • Meta Analysis Studies in Biology- An Introduction - Part I ( 3323 reads)   

    The term Meta-analysis is the most recent and prominent among the statistical analyses. But why exactly it is needed and what is its significance? The article gives an insight into the process and describes the significance. - Category: Others
  • Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics and the World of Tailored Medicines ( 2813 reads)   

    The idea of personalized medicine is in a nascent stage. The use of biomarkers and genomic studies in treatment selection and dosage determination is surely to get a wider acceptance in near future. There is no doubt that it will improve the quality and outcomes of treatment methods. - Category: Healthcare


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