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Author: Sonali Bhawsar

Author Photo Total Articles: 75 | Total Views: 976403 | Points Scored: 1,013,903

City: Pune | State: Maharashtra

About Me: Phd in Microbiology

Articles by Sonali Bhawsar:
  • Induced Systemic and Systemic Acquired Resistance ( 8930 reads)   

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) and Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are two different phenomena but both represent active plant defense responses to phytopathogen attack. ISR is similar to hypersensitive response while as SAR is alike inherent immunity of plant system. - Category: Agriculture
  • Hydrogen Cyanide Production in Soil Bacteria ( 5355 reads)   

    Hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid (HCN) or cyanide (-CN moiety) is known to all of us as a toxic chemical. It is generally found in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke; it is produced during incomplete burning of fire and has been important component of chemical weapons. It is also one of the byproducts from various industries like textile, dyeing, electroplating, chemical fertilizers, plastics etc., and as alike other industrial byproducts, is capable of polluting large number of ecosystems and their components directly. - Category: Agriculture
  • Finding Suitable Niches in the Soil by Bacteria ( 2040 reads)   

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and diverse; they are integral biotic component of every ecosystem- let it be aquatic, marine or terrestrial. Depending upon availability of nutrients, favorable/tolerable environmental conditions and specific metabolic properties every species of bacterial community occupy specific space, what is called as niche. Root nodule, root surface, soil matrix, clay particles, endophytic tissue, root epidermis, stem tumors etc. can be niches of soil bacteria. - Category: Agriculture
  • Exopolysaccharide Production by Soil Bacteria ( 2829 reads)   

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are polysaccharides synthesized by bacteria (especially soil bacteria) and secreted into the external environment. EPS are natural polymers and have distinctive chemical structures and physicochemical properties. - Category: Agriculture
  • Importance of Denitrification ( 5603 reads)   

    Truthfully, nitrogen is the most growth limiting element present in the soil, under circumstances severely affecting crop productivity and yield. So removal of fixed soil nitrogen by denitrifiers is usually considered unfavorable but it has been proved that denitrification literally maintains homeostasis between soil and air nitrogen content. - Category: Agriculture
  • The Role of PGPR in Micronutrient Supplement, Uptake and Plant Nutrition ( 4173 reads)   

    Micronutrients are essential for plant nutrition but are required in very small quantities. The copper, iron, manganese, chlorine, zinc, molybdenum and boron are micronutrients of plants whose availability and utilization is as diverse as plant diversity. They are vital for proper functioning of plant metabolism, chlorophyll and lignin synthesis, water and nutrient transport and translocation, viability of seeds, development of vigor and productivity, alleviation of other mineral deficiencies, regulation of general plant growth and also for elasticity of plant parts. These micronutrients are also important constituents of essential amino acids and enzyme complexes of plants and bacteria. The deficiency one or more micronutrients may cause severe deficiency diseases, increased vulnerability to fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth which may all affect plant's health and productivity. - Category: Applications
  • What and Why is Rhizobacterial Plant Growth Promotion? ( 1853 reads)   

    The knowledge of PGPR strains, their activities, characteristics, compatibility with native flora and fauna and most important their comparable growth and yield promotion with chemical fertilizers must be extended to the farmers. Utilization of PGPR biocultures for crop application means development and management of sustainable agriculture; in other words a suitable alternate for organic and ecofriendly farming. - Category: Agriculture
  • Different Experimental Approaches to Utilize Rhamnolipids in Diesel Fuel Biodegradation ( 2951 reads)   

    The most important property of rhamnolipids is that they are surface active compounds (surfactants). On the basis of their surfactant nature, rhamnolipids have many potential commercial applications such as in enhanced oil recovery; clean up of oil spills, as antimicrobial agent for use against phytopathogens and human pathogenic microorganisms and in cosmetic preparations. - Category: Applications
  • Honey: Natural and Artificial Synthesis and Important Applications ( 7232 reads)   

    Honey is amber colored, sweet tasting and uniquely flavored semiliquid substance. Chemically, honey is a complex carbohydrate, principally containing saturated mixture of two simple sugars, namely glucose and fructose. In addition to this, honey also contains essential minerals and vitamins. To name some, vitamins like B2, B3, B5, B6, B9 and C; minerals such as Fe, Ca, P, K, Mg and Zn are naturally present in the honey. All these contribute to upgrade the nutritional status of honey unlike refined sugar which is widely used but empty caloric food ingredient. Honey also has various interesting applications which have been described in this article. - Category: Applications
  • Scuba Diving For Marine Microbiologists ( 3251 reads)   

    All the oceans of the earth are inhabited by extremely diverse microorganisms. The present research scenario is still very scanty to understand various physiological and functional characteristics of these microcreatures. Researchers needs to explore microbes from extreme ocean habitats like deep thermal vents, ocean bed and crust, coral colonies and endosymbiotants of crustaceans and other marine fauna. - Category: Careers
  • Biogas Formation and an Urge For Its Intensive Utilization ( 5859 reads)   

    Biogas generation is one of the natural and effective means of biodegradation of waste materials which are usually dumped in the ground untreated. So it would also help to reduce ground water, soil and air pollution and a great solution for rural and urban waste management. - Category: Applications
  • Scope For Cognitive Research in the Study of Rhizobacteria and Photobacteria ( 3126 reads)   

    Bacteria are invisible mindless, speechless, brainless creatures or lacking many prominent characteristic features such as complex internal structures and abilities of other living things like plants, animals including humans. Despite the absence of such megacellular functions, they have been identified and proved to be functionally very versatile living things. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Remediation of Waste From Paper Making and Paper Recycling Industries ( 6627 reads)   

    Bioremediated solid and water waste from paper industries have potential to be utilized as material for land filling and fertilizers respectively. Fertilizer value of bioremediated waste is in fact upgraded by nitrogen fixing activities of bacterial flora indigenous to waste water. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Functional Bacterial Groups Related to the Process of Composting ( 8288 reads)   

    Composting is a natural process of biodegradation and nutrient recycling. It is slow but gradual fermentation process in which biological components like microorganisms, nematodes or worms, protozoa and variety of insects participate along with abiotic factors like temperature, pH, humidity, salinity and nutrient concentration. Composting process is initiated and carried out by functionally active microorganisms of which about 80% constitute bacteria. - Category: Biology
  • Bacteria Exhibiting the Property of Diazotrophy ( 5602 reads)   

    Atmospheric nitrogen is abundant and vital element essential for growth of all living organisms on the earth. Despite its abundance, it is the most limiting nutrient available for growth of producers because of its inertness and therefore needs to be converted into soluble and assimiable forms such as ammonia, nitrites or nitrates. Conversion of N2 to NH3 is termed as biological nitrogen fixation. Bacteria exhibiting this unique ability are diazotrophic bacteria and the phenomenon of biological fixation of nitrogen is called as diazotrophy. Plants, animals, fungi and yeasts do not fix nitrogen. - Category: Biology
  • Toxin Induced Pathogenesis by Selected Bacterial Pathogens ( 6268 reads)   

    Toxins are one of the important virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. They are produced to induce pathogenesis. Phytotoxins and entomotoxins are considered as important agrochemicals and they are being exploited for commercial production. - Category: Biology
  • Effects of Nuclear Radiation on Green Plants ( 17136 reads)   

    All living and nonliving components live in the atmosphere full of radiation and there is no place on the earth which is free from atomic radiation. Nuclear radiation is emitted from heavy and radioactive elements such as uranium, radium and radon found in earth's crust or rock strata. Apart from these, radiotherapy procedures, volcanic activity, nuclear weapons, and electric power plants using coal or nuclear energy are some of the major sources of nuclear radiation. - Category: Biology
  • Bioextraction Mechanisms of Metals From Their Ores ( 5473 reads)   

    Metal leaching by bacteria is ecofriendly metallurgical process. Only these bacteria are able to extract all the metal present in the respective ore at very low concentration or in presence of other impurities. Comparatively, traditional physicochemical extractions processes like heap leaching, roast smelting and molal extraction can be utilized in mining industries only when ore consist of sufficient concentration of metal. This is very important consideration, when the richer mineral deposits worldwide are being exploited by abiotic leaching processes. One day, such exploitation will sure result in formation of low grade ores which would have depleted mineral content. That time no option other than bioleaching would be available for extraction of metals and it will be an important process for the recovery of minerals from their ores. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Muscle Power Used by Inline Speed Skaters ( 6393 reads)   

    Inline skating is powerful and physically demanding sport. It is a game of speed, concentration, coordination and muscular endurance. Muscle power is an important functional component used by a skater for his/her fitness and performance. The horizontal displacement rather than up/down movement of center of gravity used for locomotion is an important characteristic feature of inline skating. It has also been a best cardiovascular, calorie burning and also a cross training activity. - Category: Healthcare
  • How do we Name a Bacterium? ( 41757 reads)   

    Bionomial nomenclature system is specific for naming a bacteria. It follows simple rules which are obeyed by all researchers for uniformity. - Category: Biology
  • Bacteria Responsible For Iron Corrosion ( 9505 reads)   

    Corrosion is spontaneous electrochemical process that happens with any metal. Rusting or corrosion of iron is the most common example. The process consists of conversion of Fe to Fe+2 (2e-) to Fe+3 (1e-). Electrons produced are used to reduce oxygen. Oxygen reacts with metal via water leading to formation of iron oxides (red) or hydroxides (green) which we term as rust. Only the iron oxides which are formed by iron corrosion are called as rust; oxides of other metals are not referred as rust. - Category: Biology
  • Plant Derived Herbal Medicines ( 5561 reads)   

    Antibiotic resistance is of growing concern because of misuse of antibiotics. Increase in awareness of infections and common occurrence of degenerative and immunological disorders is of great concern. Diseases like cancers still do not have control measures and remedies. Control of overuse of antibiotics and discovery of effective drugs is also a challenge. But hopes lies in the use of natural products like herbal medicines which are potential drugs with efficient active ingredients with no side effects, less cost and feasibility of production. - Category: Healthcare
  • Iron Requirement of Various Organisms ( 5254 reads)   

    Iron is important for growth and vitality of all living things but low solubility is the limiting factor for its availability. Most of the iron is present in oxidized/ferric forms are insoluble which microbes cannot assimilate. So they produce siderophores that bind, solubilize and release iron from host proteins, soil particles or other environments. Chelated free iron form is toxic and hence stored as polyphosphate, ferritins and siderophores for further metabolic use. - Category: Biology
  • Oxygen Requirements of Different Bacteria ( 15216 reads)   

    Oxygen is elemental constituent of water and organic compounds. Obligatory aerobic bacteria are dependent on aerobic respiration for fulfillment of their energetic needs; wherein molecular oxygen functions as terminal electron acceptor or oxidising agent. Anaerobic bacteria do not obtain energy by using molecular oxygen. - Category: Biology
  • Magnetotaxis and Magnetotactic Bacteria ( 5583 reads)   

    Magnetotactic bacteria are important agents of biogeochemical cycling of iron and other elements. Formation of magnetosomes is achieved by biological mechanism that controls accumulation of iron and biomineralization of magnetic crystals. They are functionally required in iron homeostasis, energy conservation and redox cycling. After death cells are no more magnetotactic but magnetosomes remain preserved and deposited as fossils contributing magnetization of sediments. - Category: Biology
  • BT Cotton and BT Brinjal - Controversies and IPR Issues ( 7877 reads)   

    Controversies regarding BT crops indicate that issues are more concerned to nutrition, yield and public policy rather than beneficial effects of GM crops. Focus should be on reports that have indicated yield increases, pest resistance; economical saving followed by reduced pesticide use and in turn the gift of clean and healthy environment. - Category: Issues
  • Usefulness of Bioemulsifiers and Biosurfactants For Environmental and Medical Applications ( 8335 reads)   

    Properties of bioemulsifiers (BE) and biosurfactants (BF) that makes them suitable for their environmental and medical applications have been discussed in the present article. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Some Genetic Manipulations of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria ( 5350 reads)   

    Investigation of mps genes from different PSB presents great potential for future improvement of PGPR strains as efficient bioinoculants for sustainable agriculture. In the present article, various attempts of genetic manipulation of PSB have been discussed. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Phosphate Solubilization ( 8722 reads)   

    Phosphorus is treated by PSM in 3 different ways: solubilization, mineralization and immobilization. Insoluble phosphates are dissolved by acidification, chelation or proton extrusion mechanisms. Solubilization by means of acidification of growth medium, that means the production of organic and inorganic acids is the most common mechanism found in PSM. - Category: Biotech Research
  • The Phenomenon of Bioluminescence in Different Organisms ( 8021 reads)   

    The basic need of illuminated environment in marine habitats is accomplished by bioluminescence. Apart from illumination, bioluminescence is used for attracting mate or prey or diverting the predators; it is also used as tool to express aposematism that is to warn off predators for defense. - Category: Biology
  • Potential Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria ( 10375 reads)   

    Hydrocarbons are principle constituents of petroleum, related byproducts like coal tar, diesel, petrol, gasoline, kerosene and major environmental pollutants. Petroleum is composed of straight or branched saturated aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic and unsaturated olefinic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are recalcitrant because of their oily nature and poor water solubility. They persist in nature for long period of time and cause hazardous effects on flora and fauna of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Oil spills, oil transportation, drilling operations, refineries and local fuel filling stations are some of the reasons responsible of hydrocarbon contamination. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria are known as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. They utilize hydrocarbons as carbon and energy source for growth. - Category: Applications
  • Symbiotic Associations of Bacteria ( 24880 reads)   

    It would be very interesting to know about symbiotic associations of bacteria with different animals including human beings, protozoa, algae, fungi and plants. You will see nature's very complex but highly coordinated interactions of different living forms. There could be more examples of bacterial associations with other organisms; only few of them are described in this article to get an idea about versatility of bacterial interactions. There could also be a possibility of existence of novel interactions which we still have not been discovered so this would be one of the areas of investigation for enthusiastic researchers. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Phytopathogenic Bacteria - Bacterial Diseases in Plants ( 13646 reads)   

    Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Acidovorax, Ralstonia, Xanthomonas, Corynebacterium, Agrobacterium, Xylella, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Streptomyces. Bacillus, Clostridium, Rhodococcus, Rhizobacter, Pantoea, Rhizomonas, Serratia, Leifsonia and Sphingomonas are some of the important phytopathogens. Major bacterial diseases of plants include galls, wilts, cankers, rots, leaf spots, fruit deformation, retarded ripening, leaf discoloration, dwarfing and stunted growth. All plant types like cereals, pulses, grasses, shrubs, trees and even medicinal plants are prone to bacterial infections. - Category: Biology
  • Coral Bacteria - Common Bacterial Diseases ( 8243 reads)   

    Polyps as such don't leave alone, they are accompanied by eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms such as fishes, echinoderms, worms, crustaceans, mollusks, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, diatoms, macroalgae, cyanobacteria or blue green algae, bacteria, methanogenic archaea and viruses. Coral and associated living forms constitute a complex system which is termed as holobiont. Their interactions make the coral a unique and very diverse ecosystem on the Earth. Each coral has its specific bacterial community. Photosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria are found to inhabit porous skeletonous structures of corals. Both types of bacteria are able to fix atmospheric and aquatic nitrogen (N2) into utilizable form (ammonia) for polyps. Polyps in absence of nitrogen fixing bacteria would otherwise have been devoid of nitrogen nutrition. Heterotrophic bacteria are also used as food by other organisms like sponges or mollusks of holobiont. - Category: Biology
  • Microbial Flora of ENT (Ear, nose and throat) ( 33999 reads)   

    Microflora generally consists of saprophytic microbes which are acquired during and after few days of birth of an individual. Bacteria are predominant normal flora organisms. They have an extraordinary ability to attach and colonize epithelial cells, to multiply and establish in human body. Every human being has specific normal flora and its composition is dependent on health status, diet, age and hormonal activities of that individual. Microorganisms establish harmless and beneficial commensalistic and mutualistic associations with human host. - Category: Biology
  • Green and Purple Sulfur Bacteria ( 48031 reads)   

    H2S produced by sulfur reduction is highly toxic to aquatic flora and fauna, often associated with fish mortality. In waterlogged anaerobic soils such as paddy fields, H2S may damage vegetation. H2S produced by reduction is important source of reducing power to support the growth of H2S aerobic chemoautotrophs or anaerobic photoauto and photoheterotrophs. - Category: Biology
  • Toxic Effects of Algal Blooms ( 6916 reads)   

    Algae are phytoplanktons and principle producer organisms of marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. Their normal growth and photosynthetic ability support the life of many aquatic flora and fauna species. Algal bloom represent over growth of algae followed by accumulation of algal population on surface waters. - Category: Toxicology
  • Toxic Fibers and Fabrics ( 40058 reads)   

    Clothing made from natural fibers like silk or cotton is traditional, ecofriendly and not harmful to wear by any means but synthetic or manmade fibers such as polyester, nylon and rayon have been found responsible for several negative effects on health and environment. Chemicals used in the manufacture of synthetic dyes are found to be main culprits. They have been linked to immunity damage, cancer, hormonal dysfunction and behavioral problems. - Category: Toxicology
  • Toxicology of Mushrooms ( 6174 reads)   

    Mushrooms are consumed for their nutrient richness such as all essential minerals, vitamins like thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, D2 or ergosterol; source of Se, Na, Zn, Ca, K and P; they are low calorie food with less fat and carbohydrate content. Some important genera of edible mushrooms are: Agaricus bisporus, Amanita cesarea, Laetiporus sulphureus, Coprinus comatus, Volvariella volvacea and Chanterella spp. But some mushrooms are deadly poisonous. - Category: Toxicology
  • Deadly and Toxic Reptiles, Amphibians and Arachnids ( 6331 reads)   

    We are aware of venomous creatures like snakes, spiders and frogs. The important species and nature and effect of their toxins are described in this article. - Category: Toxicology
  • Toxic Effects of Food Preservatives ( 11396 reads)   

    Preservatives are chemical compounds that have fungistatic, bacteriostatic, antimicrobicidal or antioxidant properties. They are added to raw, processed foods like vegetables, fruit juices, confectioneries, bakery products, poultry, fish and meat products to inhibit souring, spoilage or growth of contaminants like bacteria, fungi, yeasts or molds. They are essential to prevent certain physicochemical changes in food such as browning, rancidity and also to maintain determined shelf life of the product. Preservatives also reduce destruction of amino acids and vitamins present in the food upto some extent. - Category: Toxicology
  • Toxicology of Personal Care Products ( 10366 reads)   

    We all love make-up to look beautiful, smart and highlight our personality. Various types of cosmetics or personal care products have always provided essential aid for self grooming of women, men, children and even pet animals... - Category: Toxicology
  • Toxicology of Sugar and Salt ( 5439 reads)   

    Imagine our diet without sugar and salt, is it possible? It is impossible to have food without sugar and salt. We use several forms of sugar such as honey, jaggery, syrups, fruit juices, sweetmeats, caramel, candies, chocolates and cakes. Medicines are sugar coated which would otherwise have been unpalatable. Salted grains, cashews, pistachio, peanuts, biscuits and chips are everyone's favorite. Our tongue has special receptors to detect basic sweet and salty tastes. - Category: Toxicology
  • Comparative Toxicology of Cigarette Smoke and Automobile Exhaust ( 10035 reads)   

    Cigarette smoke contains approximately 5000 chemical compounds and at least 90 of them are known carcinogens. It is complex mixture of ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, benzene, acetaldehyde, arsenic compounds, ammonia, formaldehyde, beryllium, furan, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, isoprene, hydrazine, lead, nitromethane, carbon monoxide, polonium, tar, toluidine, vinyl chloride, N-nitroso derivatives like nitrosoorcinicotine and 50 different polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). - Category: Toxicology
  • Sample Preparation For Microscopy ( 12462 reads)   

    Information about Light and Electron microscopy preparation. Microscopes are the instruments which enable us the observation of microscopic objects such as microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. They are used for studying cellular organization of plant and animal tissues, cell division or mitosis-meiotic processes. Microscopes are employed for detection of pathological parameters such as presence of parasites in blood, morphological features of white and red blood cells.. - Category: Applications
  • The Process of Bacterial Photosynthesis and its Importance ( 24815 reads)   

    Bacterial photosynthesis is different from plant photosynthesis. The mechanism of photosynthesis, examples of photosynthetic bacteria and their importance such as in analysis of evolution of photosynthetic systems is discussed. - Category: Biology
  • The Process of Brewing: Technical Aspects and Market Potential ( 4213 reads)   

    This article gives an elaborate account of the process of brewing. Making of beer and wine is described in detail. It also deals with information regarding byproducts, diseases and market value of alcohol production process. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Production of Vitamin B12 ( 42600 reads)   

    Vitamin B12 is produced by microoorgamisms. There is no synthetic method known for the commercial production of this essential growth factor. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Asepsis and its Importance ( 19521 reads)   

    In this article, meaning, characteristics and importance of aseptic conditions is described.Asepsis is always maintained by laboratories like microbiology, pharmaceutical, genetics and molecular biology, plant and animal tissue culture and vaccine production units. - Category: Applications
  • Injuries to Microbes ( 5302 reads)   

    The extent of injury depends on susceptibility of microbe to environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure or pH and physiological state (old, growing or resting) of the cell. On the basis of structural components and metabolic processes, various mechanisms of cell injury are known in microorganisms. Injury to microbes generally results in death but still some types of damages are repairable. - Category: Applications


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