Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
An Instant Biochemical Note on StarchBY: Kirti Rani | Category: Biology | Submitted: 2012-07-28 03:21:47
Article Summary: "Starch is well know biochemical constituents which is processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods, preparation of toothpaste, stiffening and gluing agent and in paper industry too.."
Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and, for this purpose, is used chemically and enzymatically processed into a variety of different products such as starch hydrolysates, glucose syrups, fructose, maltodextrin derivatives or cyclodextrins, used in food industry. In addition to that, the sugars produced can be fermented to produce ethanol. In spite of the large number of plants able to produce starch, only a few plants are important for industrial starch processing. The major industrial sources are maize, tapioca, potato, and wheat, but limitations such as low shear resistance, thermal resistance, thermal decomposition and high tendency towards retro gradation limit its use in some industrial food applications. Among carbohydrate polymers, starch is currently enjoying increased attention due to its usefulness in different food products. Starch contributes greatly to the textural properties of many foods and is widely used in food and industrial applications as a thickener, colloidal stabilizer, gelling agent, bulking agent and water retention agent. Starch is a polymer of glucose linked to another one through the glycosidic bond. Two types of glucose polymers are present in starch: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose and amylopectin have different structures and properties. Amylose is a linear polymer consisting of up to 6000 glucose units with α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Amylopectin consists of short α-1,4 linked to linear chains of 10-60 glucose units and α-1,6 linked to side chains with 15-45 glucose units. Granule bound starch synthase can elongate malto-oligosaccharides to form amylose and is considered to be responsible for the synthesis of this polymer. Soluble starch synthase is considered to be responsible for the synthesis of unit chains of amylopectin. α-Amylase is able to cleave α-1,4 glycosidic bonds present in the inner part of the amylose or amylopectin chain. Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase. The starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues to produce amylose. Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin. The starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches. Hence, several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a highly complex synthesis process.
About Author / Additional Info:
Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida
Sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
Office Phone no: +91-120-4392946
Mobile No: +91-9990329492
Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org, Kirtisharma2k@rediffmail.com
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Nanomedicine: Its Introduction and Applications
• Advances in Modern Plant Biotechnology
• Lycium Barbarum : A Potential Underutilized Crop with Great Medicinal Importance
• Laboratory Data For Blood Test
Latest Articles in "Biology" category:
• Wonderful World of Microorganisms and Their Role in Human Life.
• Molecular Biology Techniques
• Process of Reproduction in Bacteria
• Importance of Microorganisms in the Ecosystem
• Starting From the Basics: DNA Extraction
• Agrobacetium-Mediated Transformation Protocol
• Sucrose Regulating Photosynthesis
• Nitrogen Fixation: Genes Involved and the Infection Process
• Functional Genomics: A Tool in Genetic Engineering
• Plant Tissue Culture and Its Applications
• Harmful Effects of Mold and Their Prevention
• Gel Electrophoresis in Molecular Biology
• Extraction of Phytochemicals
• Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography
• Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria
• Calvin Cycle Regulation and Effect on Photosynthesis
• How a Baby Develops Inside Mother's Womb: From an Embryo to a Child
• Apoptosis (or cell suicide) : Process and Types
• Neurotransmitters and its types
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us