Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS PUBLISH ARTICLE Nexa Collections (Advt.)
 
 

Classification and Enzymes - Uses and Production of Enzymes

BY: Shivika Bhatnagar | Category: Biology | Submitted: 2011-12-20 12:15:04
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Enzymes are proteins which catalyse the biochemical reactions in living cells. Chemically they are globular proteins secreted by cells to regulate their metabolic activities. The enzymatic reactions are very specific, i.e. a particular enzyme catalyses only a particular biochemical reaction, but not others..."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


Enzymes are proteins which catalyse the biochemical reactions in living cells. Chemically they are globular proteins secreted by cells to regulate their metabolic activities. The enzymatic reactions are very specific, i.e. a particular enzyme catalyses only a particular biochemical reaction, but not others.

The speed of the catalytic reaction depends on the temperature of the system, the pressure of the system, the concentration of the substrates, the concentration of the enzyme, the concentration of the enzyme-inhibitors and the concentration of the products in the reaction mixture.

Enzymes and broadly classified into two groups. They are intracellular enzymes and extracellular enzymes. The intracellular enzymes are produced in the cell; they catalyse the reactions within the cell itself. But the extracellular enzymes are secreted by cells and are transported to different sites to catalyse the biochemical reactions.

A wide class of organisms are used as process-organisms to extract enzymes in industries. These organisms include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes and the cultures of plant and animal cells. They utilize the nutrients present in the culture medium and accumulate enzymes either in the cells or in the medium. The enzymes are isolated and put into many uses in industries.

The proper strain of microorganism must be selected for the industrial production of enzymes. The selected strain must have the following features, then only the isolation of a large amount of the desired enzyme from the spent medium will be possible.

• The organisms must accumulate the desired enzymes in the medium.
• They must produce a large proportion of desirable enzyme within a limited time.
• They must produce the desirable enzymes steadily.
• They must grow in cheap raw materials.
• They must be non-pathogenic organisms for producing the enzyme.
• They must adjust themselves to the physical and chemical properties of the culture medium such as temperature, pH, the availability of substrates, etc.

Generally microorganisms produce a small quantity of enzymes in the culture. Genetics of the microbes are manipulated properly in order to make them to produce enzymes in large amounts.

Mutation favours the enzyme production by avoiding the requirement of inducer molecule for the synthesis of enzymes. This type of mutation causes the production of more enzymes in the inducer-dependent enzyme synthesis. Some mutants show resistance to the repressor molecule during the enzyme biosynthesis.

Some mutation induce the production of more copies of the genes, responsible for the production of a particular enzyme. Point mutations are used for this purpose.

Some enzymes are produced in a large amount when the microbial culture is treated with some specific substances. Such substances which induce the production of specific enzyme in the microbes, are called inducers. The enzymes thus produced are named inducible enzymes. For example, starch is an inducer molecule which induces the cells of Bacillus sps to produce alpha- amylase (an enzyme).

Some enzymes are continuously produced by the organisms in the culture without any response to the addition of inducers to the culture. Such enzymes are called constitutive enzymes.

Sometimes the biosynthesis of enzyme is blocked by the addition of certain substances to the culture, This process is called repression. There are two types of repressions, namely feed back repression and catabolic repression.

In feed back repression, the end product of the biosynthetic pathway inhibits the further synthesis of the enzyme. For example, addition of sulphur containing amino acids inhibits the biosynthesis of protease in Bacilli.

In catabolic repression, the substrate molecules repress the biosynthesis of enzymes. The fact is generally used to block the synthesis of undesirable enzyme. For example, in E.coli, glucose galactosidase enzyme is repressed by the glucose present in the medium.

About Author / Additional Info:


Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 3927



Additional Articles:

•   The Nature's Novel Ways To Genetically Modify Organisms

•   GWAS - The New Age of Genomic Studies

•   Parallel Potential Prospects of Nanotechnology and Bioinformatics

•   Medicinal Plants: A Boon to Combat Oxidative Stress




Latest Articles in "Biology" category:
•   Wonderful World of Microorganisms and Their Role in Human Life.

•   Molecular Biology Techniques

•   Process of Reproduction in Bacteria

•   Importance of Microorganisms in the Ecosystem

•   Starting From the Basics: DNA Extraction

•   Agrobacetium-Mediated Transformation Protocol

•   Sucrose Regulating Photosynthesis

•   Nitrogen Fixation: Genes Involved and the Infection Process

•   Functional Genomics: A Tool in Genetic Engineering

•   Plant Tissue Culture and Its Applications

•   Harmful Effects of Mold and Their Prevention

•   Gel Electrophoresis in Molecular Biology

•   Extraction of Phytochemicals

•   Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography

•   Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria

•   Calvin Cycle Regulation and Effect on Photosynthesis

•   How a Baby Develops Inside Mother's Womb: From an Embryo to a Child

•   Apoptosis (or cell suicide) : Process and Types

•   Neurotransmitters and its types



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us