Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS FORUMS PUBLISH ARTICLE
 
 

Fungal Disease of Tomato and Its Management

BY: Jitendra E Wayde | Category: Biology | Submitted: 2016-10-21 01:37:34
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Tomatoes crop and yield is suffered every year due to number of fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production. Diseases caused by fungus is develop through soil-borne, above-ground infections and in some instances are transmitted through pest and insect feeding. Conventional breeding and the molecular bio.."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


Fungal Disease of Tomato and Its Management
Authors:
Prof. Jiitendra E. Wayde, Assistance Professor (Genetics and Plant Breeding), H.H.S.S. Muralidhara Swamiji College of Agriculture, Malegaon, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.
Prof. Shilpa K. Udamale, Assistance Professor, (Dept. of Botany), H.H.S.S. Muralidhara Swamiji College of Agriculture, Malegaon, Nasik, Maharashtra India.
Dr. Manoj kumar Bahel, Assistance Professor (Genetic and Plant breeding) Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.


Introduction:

Fungal diseases can be a major problem of tomatoes. It is soil borne disease in plants. Fungi live and obtain their intake from infected host tissue. It is replicate by spores, small microscopic bodies, which are spread with water wind and other mechanical means to a new host.it is spores germinate and host specific infect to plant tissues causing rots, wilt, leaf spots it leads to defoliation and reduced to yield of tomato. Fungi is developed and spread in home garden and determine rainfall, humidity, free moisture and temperature.

Most common fungal disease is infecting for tomatoes grown in home garden in early blight, late blight, leaf spot, fusarium wilt all are produce distinct symptoms.

Early Blight (Alternaria solani):

Early blight can infect tomato foliage and fruit. On Early blight first appears as circular irregular black or brown spots on the older leaves of the plant. Early blight can infect the fruit through the calyx or stem attachment in the immature green or red stage and can produce distinct target-like lesions similar to foliar infection. Defoliation caused by early blight can reduce fruit yield and can leave the fruit open to sunscald injury.

Late Blight ( Phytophthora infestans) :

The disease will first appear as greasy grayish indefinite patches on older leaves and stems. These spots enlarge in moist weather and may produce white fuzzy growth on the underside of infected leaves. The fungus will also attack fruit early blight lesion on infected tomato leaf with distinct concentric rings. Early blight causing rot on petal end of infected tomato fruit.

Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum):

Wilt diseases are caused by pathogens that invade the vascular system and disrupt water flow through the plant. Fusarium wilt is the major wilt disease of tomato. The first symptom is usually a yellowing of the lower leaves, which gradually wilt and die. Symptoms may first occur on only one side of the plant. The disease progresses up the stem until all of the foliage is killed and the plant dies. If stems or petioles from wilted areas of diseased plants are cut, a reddish-brown discoloration can be seen between the pith and the outer green part of the stem.

Southern Blight (Sclerotium rolfsii):

Southern blight can be a devastating disease of tomatoes. The southern blight fungus has a wide host range attacking more than 200 species of plants that include common weeds and crop plants.

The initial symptom of southern blight is a rapid wilting of the entire plant. A water-soaked lesion on the stem near the soil line rapidly expands, turns brown and girdles the stem. Sclerotia are first white, later becoming brown, and resemble mustard seeds.

Soil Rots

Soil rots are caused by several fungi which reside in soil and infect fruit in direct contact with the soil or are splashed into lower fruit near the soil. Warm, wet conditions and growth of tomatoes in poorly drained areas favor soil rot development. Ripe fruit is generally most vulnerable to soil rot development; however green fruit may also be affected.

Damping-off ( Pythium and Rhizoctonia ):

Wide host range, it is cause by pre- and post-emergence, damping-off, both favored by excess moisture P. aphanidermatum favored by high temperatures; P. ultimum by low temperatures.

Management of the disease:

Use Clean Seed: Treat seed with dilute Clorox or hot water

Seed borne fungal diseases is Septoria, Anthracnose, Early blight, Fusarium wilt.

Choose Resistant Varieties: Most are resistant to Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, Root knot nematode, Partial resistance, Alternaria stem canker.

Use Pathogen Free Transplants: Transplant production conditions favorable for bacterial and fungal disease for Damping-off, Alternaria (early blight), White mold, Botrytis.

Use Pathogen Free Transplants: Scout regularly and destroy plants with symptoms is Minimize moisture “dry growing”, All fungal diseases of seedlings favored by excess moisture, Maintain warm conditions, Pythium damping-off, white mold, Botrytis favored by cool conditions, Use only municipal or well water avoid surface water unless it is treated to kill microorganisms, Pythium is a common water mold, Mancozeb applications help control early blight, White mold or Botrytis Fontelis or Scala (GH allowed) Choose the Best Site and Rotate, Site selection, Well drained, Good air movement, Sunny, Rotate out of the tomato, 3-4 years out of tomatoes if possible.

Use Best Cultural Practices: Avoid handling plants when they are wet, sanitize hands, boots and tools between fields, maintain reduced-stress growing conditions, well-drained soil, Appropriate fertilizer, Regular irrigation if needed, Improved organic matter content cover crops, compost, Clean and sanitize equipment between fields

Use Crop Protectants Program: Fungicide program depends on the Disease problems, Fungicide efficacy, Resistance management, Cost.


About Author / Additional Info:
I have completed M.Sc. in Agriculture (Genetic and Plant Breeding) from Lovely Professional University, Punjab

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 415



Additional Articles:

•   Orchids : The Defined Beauty of Nature on Earth

•   Antibiotics and its Fermentation

•   New Dimension of Scope and Career in Microbiology

•   Green Nanaotechnology Vs Nanoscience and Nanolibrary




Latest Articles in "Biology" category:
•   Wonderful World of Microorganisms and Their Role in Human Life.

•   Molecular Biology Techniques

•   Process of Reproduction in Bacteria

•   Importance of Microorganisms in the Ecosystem

•   Starting From the Basics: DNA Extraction

•   Agrobacetium-Mediated Transformation Protocol

•   Sucrose Regulating Photosynthesis

•   Nitrogen Fixation: Genes Involved and the Infection Process

•   Functional Genomics: A Tool in Genetic Engineering

•   Plant Tissue Culture and Its Applications

•   Harmful Effects of Mold and Their Prevention

•   Gel Electrophoresis in Molecular Biology

•   Extraction of Phytochemicals

•   Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography

•   Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria

•   Calvin Cycle Regulation and Effect on Photosynthesis

•   How a Baby Develops Inside Mother's Womb: From an Embryo to a Child

•   Apoptosis (or cell suicide) : Process and Types

•   Neurotransmitters and its types



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us