Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Human Microbial MutualismBY: Divya Narayan | Category: Biology | Submitted: 2016-06-03 03:41:55
Article Summary: "Mutualism is the mutually-beneficial association between two organisms. In the human body, mutualism is seen as a result of resident microbiota performing various functions in specific parts of the body where they are localized and undergo colonization. .."
HUMAN MICROBIAL MUTUALISM
The human microbiota comprises of the aggregate of microorganisms, which colonize various parts of the body. Microbiological studies have found that different groups of microorganisms perform exactly the same metabolic processes in each individual. 1
The indigenous group of organisms normally present at a particular given anatomical site is known as indigenous microbiota. 2
Certain areas of the body are more densely colonized by microorganisms than others. This phenomenon is known as 'tissue specificity'. The reasons for tissue specificity are - 2
1. Tissue tropism - Availability of specific nutrients and optimal conditions for survival in certain parts of the body encourages microorganisms to colonize and establish microbiota in that region
2. Specific adherence - The microbial cell contains certain components known as ligands or adhesion components which help in binding with microbial cell receptors.
3. Biofilm formation - Biofilm is the adherence of microorganisms to a cellular surface and in turn to one another so as to form a film or layer of colonized microorganisms, and enclosed within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). 3
Before birth, the foetus exists in a completely sterile environment. However, the processes of parturition as well as lactation mean that microbiota get transferred on to the neonatal system, and microbial colonization begins. This results in the establishment of normal or indigenous microbiota in the neonatal system in a period of about 48 hours. 2
What is mutualism?
Symbiosis is the close and long-term association of two or more organisms, which can be - 4
- Parasitism - The parasite derives its nutritional benefits from the host organism.
- Commensalism - One organism benefits and other organism is unaffected by this association
- Mutualism - A mutually beneficial association
Mutualistic association of microbiota in each part of the body is as follows
- Scalp - Fungi are normally found on the human scalp. This is known as Mycobiome. Normally occurring fungi provide protection to the scalp against pathogenic infections. 5 In turn, the fungi utilize the conditions in the scalp for their own growth and survival. In a healthy scalp, fungal species of Coniochaeta, Cryptococcus (non-pathogenic), Didymella, Rhodotorula, have been found in greater frequencies. 6
- Skin - Normal skin microbiota have been thought to be commensal until now. However, emerging evidence states that bacteria present on the surface of the skin may in fact be associated with host defence mechanism. For example, Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as other mutuals. However, it is to be noted that the same bacteria ma transform from mutual to commensal to parasitic depending upon the environmental conditions. It has been found that strains of S. epidermidis produce lantibiotics or bacteriocins (lanthionine containing anti-bacterial peptides). These peptides have been found to display toxic effects against pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus (GAS). The presence of S. epidermidis also encourages the production of the body's own immune responses (antimicrobial molecules). Conversely, usage of topic antibiotics may eliminate presence of S. epidermidis from the skin surface which may have an adverse impact on the host immune responses. 7
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism which can display skin protective effects. It produces pseudomonic acid (an antimicrobial component) that works against infections caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal organisms. It also displays antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus fumigatus. 8
- Oral cavity - Over 700 species of microorganisms have been identified in healthy oral cavity. Some of the species are - Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Porphromonas, Prevotella, Treponema, Nisseria, Haemophilis, Eubacteria, Lactobacterium, Capnocytophaga, Eikenella, Leptotrichia, Peptostreptococcus, Staphylococcus , and Propionibacterium. These bacteria maintain a mutualistic association with the host organism. They do not allow pathogens to adhere to surfaces inside the oral cavity, thereby preventing biofilm formation and infection. 9
- Gut - The gastrointestinal tract comprises of upto 1000 species of bacteria. 10 Gut microorganisms perform a variety of functions in the human body - 11,12,13,14,15
Microbiota existence has been found in other parts of the body such as the conjunctiva, and the respiratory tract. However, no mutualistic association has been exhibited by microorganisms present in these parts.
1. Human microbiota - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota (Accessed on May 31, 2016)
2. The Normal Bacterial Flora of Humans. Available from http://textbookofbacteriology.net/normalflora.html (Accessed on May 31, 2016)
3. Donlan RM. Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(9):881-890. doi:10.3201/eid0809.020063
4. Mutualism vs Symbiosis. Available from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/microbial-ecology-16/microbial-symbioses-196/mutualism-vs-symbiosis-987-10859/ (Accessed on May 31, 2016)
5. Grimshaw S, Smith A, et al. The human scalp microbiome: Application of next generation sequencing of microbial communities. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2012;66(4):AB62 . doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2011.11.265
6. Park HK, Ha M-H, Park S-G, Kim MN, Kim BJ, Kim W. Characterization of the Fungal Microbiota (Mycobiome) in Healthy and Dandruff-Afflicted Human Scalps. Gilbert JA, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(2):e32847. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032847
7. Cogen AL, Nizet V, Gallo RL. Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence? The British journal of dermatology. 2008;158(3):442-455. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08437.x
8. Boundless. "Microbiota of the Skin." Boundless Microbiology. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 01 June 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/diseases-15/microbial-diseases-of-the-skin-168/microbiota-of-the-skin-832-7349/
9. Avila M, Ojcius DM, Yilmaz O. The Oral Microbiota: Living with a Permanent Guest. DNA and Cell Biology. 2009;28(8):405-411. doi:10.1089/dna.2009.0874
10. Fujimura KE, Slusher NA, Cabana MD, Lynch SV. Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2010;8(4):435-454. doi:10.1586/eri.10.14
11. Gut Microbiota Info. Available from http://www.gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com/en/about-gut-microbiota-info/ (Accessed on June 1, 2016)
12. Gut flora - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora#Functions (Accessed on June 1, 2016)
13. The role of gut microorganisms in human health. Available from http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/The_role_of_gut_microorganisms_in_human_health/ (Accessed on June 1, 2016)
14. Fujimura KE, Slusher NA, Cabana MD, Lynch SV. Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2010;8(4):435-454. doi:10.1586/eri.10.14
15. Zhang Y-J, Li S, Gan R-Y, Zhou T, Xu D-P, Li H-B. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases. Sugumaran M, ed. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015;16(4):7493-7519. doi:10.3390/ijms16047493
16. Williams D. How Healthy Gut Bacteria Support Digestive Health. Available from http://www.drdavidwilliams.com/healthy-gut-bacteria-support-digestive-health/ (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
17. JG LeBlanc, Milani C, et al. Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2013;24(2):160-8. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2012.08.005. Epub 2012 Aug 30.
18. Conly JM, Stein K. The production of menaquinones (vitamin K2) by intestinal bacteria and their role in maintaining coagulation homeostasis. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science. 1992;16(4):307-43.
19. Jankowski JA, Goodlad RA, Wright NA. Maintenance of normal intestinal mucosa: function, structure, and adaptation. Gut. 1994;35:S1-S4. doi: 10.1136/gut.35.1_Suppl.S1
20. Human gastrointestinal tract - Wikipedia, The Free encyclopedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_gastrointestinal_tract#Mucosa (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
21. Kamada N, Chen GY, Inohara N, Nunez G. Control of Pathogens and Pathobionts by the Gut Microbiota. Nature immunology. 2013;14(7):685-690. doi:10.1038/ni.2608
22. Purchiaroni F, Tortora A, et al. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2013;17(3):323-333.
23. Gut flora - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora#Metabolic_function (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
24. Gut bacteria that protect against food allergies identified. Available from https://sciencelife.uchospitals.edu/2014/08/25/gut-bacteria-that-protect-against-food-allergies-identified/ (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
25. Gut Bacteria and IBS. Available from http://www.aboutibs.org/gut-bacteria-and-ibs.html (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
26. Goodrich JK, Waters JL, Poole AC, et al. Human genetics shape the gut microbiome. Cell. 2014;159(4):789-799. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.053
27. Martin DH, Zozaya M, Lillis R, Miller J, Ferris MJ. The Microbiota of the Human Genitourinary Tract: Trying to See the Forest Through the Trees. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 2012;123:242-256
28. Lactobacillius crispatus - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillus_crispatus (Accessed on June 2, 2016)
About Author / Additional Info:
I am a post-graduate in Biochemistry from the University of Mumbai
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Current Ventures in Nanomedicine
• Transfection : Techniques Involved and Advantages
• Engineering Virus Disease Resistance
• Foraging Behavior of Honey Bee and Floral Fidelity
Latest Articles in "Biology" category:
• Wonderful World of Microorganisms and Their Role in Human Life.
• Molecular Biology Techniques
• Process of Reproduction in Bacteria
• Importance of Microorganisms in the Ecosystem
• Starting From the Basics: DNA Extraction
• Agrobacetium-Mediated Transformation Protocol
• Sucrose Regulating Photosynthesis
• Nitrogen Fixation: Genes Involved and the Infection Process
• Functional Genomics: A Tool in Genetic Engineering
• Plant Tissue Culture and Its Applications
• Harmful Effects of Mold and Their Prevention
• Gel Electrophoresis in Molecular Biology
• Extraction of Phytochemicals
• Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography
• Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria
• Calvin Cycle Regulation and Effect on Photosynthesis
• How a Baby Develops Inside Mother's Womb: From an Embryo to a Child
• Apoptosis (or cell suicide) : Process and Types
• Neurotransmitters and its types
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us