Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS FORUMS PUBLISH ARTICLE
 
 

Development of C4 Rice: Current Progress and Future Challenges

BY: Gajendra Rathod | Category: Biotech-Research | Submitted: 2015-03-13 07:36:26
       Author Photo
Article Summary: "Present article describes about the development and strategies for production of C4 rice. Overproduction of C4 photosynthetic enzymes in transgenic rice plants: .."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


The Development of C4 Rice: Current Progress and Future Challenges
Authors: Gajendra Rathod1,Sukumar Taria1, Deepak Pawar2, Rakesh Kumar Prajapat2
1Ph.D scholar, Division of Plant Physiology, IARI, New Delhi-110012
2 Ph.D scholar, NRCPB, IARI, New Delhi-110012



What is the need for development ofC4Rice?

After 40 years, each remaining hectare will have to feed at least 43 people .This means that yields must be increased by at least 50% over the next 40 years to prevent mass malnutrition for the 700 million Asians that currently rely on rice for more than 60% of their daily calorific intake. Evolution has increased photosynthetic efficiency by 50% in the form of theC4pathway so we can harness the nature potential by developingC4rice. Apart from thisC4rice can improve water and nitrogen use efficiency.

Harnessing the natural diversity of wild rice

• The wild rice resources are still underutilized for physiology and photosynthesis screening.

0. rufipogon is a suitable candidate for improving photosynthesis in rice as it has much lower photorespiration rate. Likewise 0. australiensis has increased PEPC activity and few 0. nivara accessions have low C02 compensation point.

Steps that can be followed for development ofC4Rice
BA_3336_a

Strategies forC4rice production:

Resolving the Compartmentation and Function ofC4Photosynthesis in the Single-CellC4Species Bienertia sinuspersici

• Three species in family Chenopodiaceae have been shown to lack the requirement for Kranz anatomy in order to performC4photosynthesis

• They have two biochemically and morphologically different chloroplast types, which are spatially separated between two cytoplasmic domains within individual photosynthetic cells

• In Suaeda aralocaspica, two chloroplast types are arranged in elongated chlorenchyma cells, proximal and distal with respect to the internally located veins

• In contrast, Bienertia cycloptera and Bienertia sinuspersici show a more unique cell morphology. They have one chloroplast type distributed throughout the periphery [P-CP] of the cell and the other chloroplast type [C-CP] concentrated in a central compartment (CC) along with the mitochondria and peroxisomes, forming a ball-like structure in the center of the cell.


BA_3336_b
Fig. Model for CO2 fixation in B. sinuspersici (Offermann S. 2011)

Overproduction ofC4photosynthetic enzymes in transgenic rice plants: an approach to introduce the C4-like photosynthetic pathway into rice.

• If PEPC, PPDK, and NADP- ME can be overproduced, the C4-like pathway of Hydrilla might operate in the mesophyll cell of C3 plants. The activity of NADP-MDH in C3 mesophyll cells is high, and it is considered that activation of the endogenous enzyme may be sufficient for operation of the pathway.


BA_3336_c
Fig. Introduction of the C4-like photosynthetic pathway of Hydrilla verticillata
(Taniguchi Y 2008)


Future Ahead

• Identification of regulatory switches, micro dissection of leaf BSC, MC, Primordia, transcriptome and genome sequencing

• Identification of promoters and their regulation to give accurate cell specific and developmental expression

• Develop theC4web platform

• Merely overproduction of genes involved inC4pathway are not sufficient for the production of theC4rice.

• Detailed microscopy of C3 andC4anatomy and characterization in the mutant and transgenics lines

B. sinuspersici is an important system for future study, since its chloroplast differentiation is analogous to Kranz-typeC4species.

• Need to assess the variability within rice species and their related wild relatives

• Given the access to advanced technologies, sustainable funding and co-ordinated global efforts could lead to significant development towardsC4rice in near future



REFERENCES:

1. Sascha Offermann, Thomas W. Okita and Gerald E. Edwards (2011) Resolving the Compartmentation and Function ofC4Photosynthesis in the Single-CellC4Species Bienertia sinuspersici. Plant Physiology: 155 (4) 1612-1628.

2. Taniguchi Y, Ohkawa H, Masumoto C, Fukuda T, Tamai T, Lee K, Sudoh S, Tsuchida H, Sasaki H, Fukayama H, Miyao M (2008) Overproduction ofC4photosynthetic enzymes in transgenic rice plants: an approach to introduce the C4-like photosynthetic pathway into rice. J Exp Bot : 59(7):1799-809.

About Author / Additional Info:


Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 1770



Additional Articles:

•   Environmental Pollution - List of Most Common Pollutants

•   A Detailed Review on Feeder-free Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

•   Virtual Screening- a Promising Approach to Drug Discovery

•   Next Generation Sequencing Technology




Latest Articles in "Biotech-Research" category:
•   Human Longevity: A Revolution in Biotechnology and Nanotechnology.

•   Nanoparticles as Delivery Device For Gene Therapy

•   Biotechnology as a Tool in Medicine: Focus on Artemisinin

•   Tissue Cells and Skin Cells Reprogrammed Into Embryonic Stem Cells:-

•   Polymerase Chain Reaction (or PCR) - Technique For Amplifying DNA

•   Treatment of Heart Disease With Stem Cells

•   Biological Activities and Bioassays

•   DNA Sequencing: Maxam Gilbert Method

•   PCR Aspects and its Future | PCR versus Cloning

•   Plasmid as Vectors For Plant Transformation

•   Gene Isolation and Characterisation

•   Apoptosis and Cancer: A Review

•   Extraction of Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) From Plant Tissues

•   Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Vein Leftovers Can Heal Damaged Hearts

•   Gene Transfer Techniques: Biolistics, Bacterial and Viral Transformation

•   Breast Cancer: Cactus For Womens Life

•   Mtt Assay: Assess The Viability Of Cell In Culture

•   Medicinal Plants: Source Of Medicine

•   Biotechnology Impact on Alzheimer's Disease



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us