Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Vegetable Crops as Bioreactors for Production of Edible VaccinesBY: Nangsol Dolma Bhutia | Category: Biotech-Research | Submitted: 2016-08-17 08:43:44
Article Summary: "Vegetable crops provides numerous health benefits to mankind. Suitable crops can be exploited as bioreactors for production of edible vaccines as it offers added advantage over traditional vaccines production. With the aid of modern biotechnology and with sensible relaxation from governmental organizations, transgenic crops can .."
Vegetable Crops as Bioreactors for Production of Edible Vaccines
Vegetable crops offers innumerable wealth to human health by providing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins,minerals,fats (minimal amount), antioxidants and dietary fibers. In recent years, with the advancement of technology, especially, in the field of molecular biotechnology, it has summoned in new era, an era where suitable vegetable crops can be used as a manufacturer of vaccines. The concept of edible vaccines was introduced by Dr.Arntzen and his colleagues to overcome the limit of traditional vaccine production. Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and sociocultural readily acceptable vaccine delivery system. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then the altered plant produces the encoded proteins. Initially, thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. The added advantage of Edible vaccines is mucosal-targeted vaccines, which cause stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune response. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and transformation via genetically modified plant virus are the common methods that have been used to produce effective vaccines. New approaches have been developed to increase the efficiency of transformation such as biolistic, electroporation, agro infiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. The integration of gene construct into the genome i.e. nuclear and chloroplast depends on the method of transformation used. Among nuclear and chloroplast transformation, most of the recently reported plant-based vaccines are produced through chloroplast transformation. The dengue virus vaccine targeting dengue-3 serotype polyprotein (DENV3prM/E) was produced in Lactuca sativa via chloroplast transformation.
Transgenic tomato plants expressing a malaria antigen (PfCP 2.9) (a chimera of the antigens MSP1 and AMA1 of Plasmodium falciparum) was obtained using Cotyledons of seven-day old tomatoes, cultivar Summers, transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens .
The expression of a surface antigen from bacterium streptococcus mutants in tobacco was used for demonstration of an edible vaccines, initially .Vegetable crops like potato, tomato, carrot, lettuce have been tested and found suitable for the vaccine production. In 1997, human trial on transgenic potato containing b-subunit of the E.coli heat -labile toxin for diarrhea was undertaken. 4 fold increase in serum antibodies was reported from 10 of the 11 volunteers. In 1999, Boyce Thompson Institute at Cornell University conducted a clinical trial on potatoes containing the Norwalk virus. Immune response was elicited in 19 out of 20 volunteers. Prodigene, a biotechnology company, is developing numerous industrial and pharmaceuticals protein from plants. The patent on different technologies for edible vaccines has been claimed by various labs and universities like Biocem;Rhone-Merieux claims on Rabies vaccine expressed in tomato plant, Recombinant antigen production in lettuce and spinach by Scripps Research Institute.
Edible vaccines hold great potential, especially in Third World countries where transportation costs; poor refrigeration and needle use complicate vaccine administration. Even though plant-based vaccines provide many benefits to the vaccine industry, there are still challenges that limit the rate of successful production of these third-generation vaccines. Even with all the limitations, continuous efforts are still ongoing in order to produce efficient vaccine for many human and animals related diseases owing to its great potentials. They also offer a convenient tool against the threat of bio-terrorism.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am a PhD scholar at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, working on molecular aspects in vegetable crops.
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Mutations: Suppression or Intergeneric Reversion
• New Dimension of Scope and Career in Microbiology
• Pharmaceutical Pipeline and How to Protect it?
• Sucrose Regulating Photosynthesis
Latest Articles in "Biotech-Research" category:
• Human Longevity: A Revolution in Biotechnology and Nanotechnology.
• Nanoparticles as Delivery Device For Gene Therapy
• Biotechnology as a Tool in Medicine: Focus on Artemisinin
• Tissue Cells and Skin Cells Reprogrammed Into Embryonic Stem Cells:-
• Polymerase Chain Reaction (or PCR) - Technique For Amplifying DNA
• Treatment of Heart Disease With Stem Cells
• Biological Activities and Bioassays
• DNA Sequencing: Maxam Gilbert Method
• PCR Aspects and its Future | PCR versus Cloning
• Plasmid as Vectors For Plant Transformation
• Gene Isolation and Characterisation
• Apoptosis and Cancer: A Review
• Extraction of Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) From Plant Tissues
• Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Vein Leftovers Can Heal Damaged Hearts
• Gene Transfer Techniques: Biolistics, Bacterial and Viral Transformation
• Breast Cancer: Cactus For Womens Life
• Mtt Assay: Assess The Viability Of Cell In Culture
• Medicinal Plants: Source Of Medicine
• Biotechnology Impact on Alzheimer's Disease
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us