Biotechnology Articles Publish Your Biotechnology Research/Articles Online

Share your knowledge - Get Recognition | International Audience - Great Readership
  

Home | Submit Articles | Login   
 
ALL Categories AGRICULTURE CAREERS GENETICS HEALTHCARE ISSUES NEWS STEM CELLS
 
 

Microbial Production of Vitamin B12

BY: Sonali Bhawsar | Category: Biotechnology-products | Submitted: 2011-02-15 03:51:21
 

   Author Photo
•    Post a Comment

Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Microbial production of vitamin B12

Vitamins are growth factors required in very small amounts but are very essential part of nutrition of humans, animals and even microbes. Chemically, vitamins are organic compounds. They also function as coenzymes or building blocks for coenzymes of several enzymes. Vitamin B12 is one of the important vitamins of B complex (B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid) group. It is also known as cobalamin or cobamide. Structurally, it is very complex compound or rather a group of closely related cobamides. The structure contains cobalt porphyrin nucleus attached to ribose and phosphate. Variations in structure may occur because of different purine, Benzimidazole or other chemical groups attached to cobalt atom. Being water soluble, it needs to be supplied regularly through food such as liver extract and meat. It is essential in the formation of red blood cells and its deficiency causes pernicious anemia. It functions as coenzyme in various cobalamin derivatives which are involved in molecular rearrangement reactions. Microbial synthesis is the only source of commercial production of vitamin B12. There is no other source or synthetic method known that produce B12 vitamin. Vitamin B12 is produced during normal microbial metabolism. In 1948, Rickes and colleagues, first time recovered B12 in active crystalline form from actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. Before this discovery, vitamin B12 was in use as antipernicious anemia factor for the treatment of anemic patients. Many different types of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes synthesize vitamin B12 but intestinal and rumen bacteria are most prevalent in its production in large amount. Two types of vitamin B12 re produced by microorganisms; one that promote growth only of microbes and other type which is required for normal growth in animals and humans. Commercially, vitamin B12 is synthesized by microbial fermentation. Hundreds of fermentation processes and their modifications have been employed on commercial scale. Some of them are described here.

1. Direct fermentation: In this process, Streptomyces olivaceus is grown in nutrient medium containing glucose as carbon source. Cobalt chloride, CoCl2 (less than 10ppm) is added as precursor at the beginning or intermittently during the production. Higher concentration of CoCl2 is generally toxic. Fermentation is carried out at 27˚C with aeration for about 5 days. At the end of incubation, growth is harvested before mycelial autolysis and destruction of vitamin. The vitamin is recovered from broth by filtration. A part of mycelium containing vitamin B12 is dried and used as cattle and poultry feed. Filtrate and remaining mycelia are acidified or treated with alcohol to recover the vitamin. Heat treatment is sometimes required for complete extraction of vitamin from mycelia; this vitamin is heat labile so heat is applied with caution and prior study. During acidification, sodium sulfite is added to stabilize the vitamin. Acidified broth is filtered to remove mycelial growth and filtrate is evaporated to dryness under vacuum. It can be further purified by treatment with acetone and ion exchange resins. Ultrapurified crystalline form of vitamin is used for medical use. Direct fermentation employing Bacillus megaterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas has also been used for commercial production of vitamin B12. These methods are similar with respect to recovery and extraction but different regarding yield, growth conditions and fermentation medium as per the requirement of fermentative culture.

2. Indirect production: Vitamin B12 is also obtained as byproduct of various antibiotic fermentation processes such as Grisein, Streptomycin and Aureomycin production. It is also formed during acetone-butanol fermentation. It is reported to be present in high concentration in sewage sludge.

3. Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering techniques has allowed us to change the byproduct status of this vitamin towards principle product, especially in case of Streptomyces fermentation. The strains of Streptomyces griseus have been developed via rigorous strain improvement programmes involving mutations and recombination techniques to yield more vitamin B12 as compared to antibiotic production. Genetic approaches like genome shuffling have also been applied in Propionibacterium shermanii to improve yields of vitamin B12.

About Author / Additional Info:



Comments on this article: (8 comments so far)

Comment Comment By Comment Date
Meaningful procedures and methods Aravindan 2013-03-27 10:41:47 593
Thanks Aravindan, for reading it! Sonali Bhawsar - Author 2013-03-31 22:02:48 596
Like it rafikulislam 2013-05-21 13:20:12 634
Thank you! Sonali Bhawsar - Author 2013-06-03 23:39:29 639
This article is very interesting and useful to me in searching for information on b-12. I hope to find more information on getting adequate amounts for humans of vitamin b-12 from plant sources, such as fermented food. Zoe 2013-10-19 06:57:42 701
Thank you! Sonali Bhawsar - Author 2013-10-28 00:36:41 708
Hi i want to produce B12 for myself using natural medium. like date as carbon source and green leaf as cobalt source. i can bland and sterilize it. do you have any suggestion on the medium? what kind of bacteria will be good for that and where can i get it? thanks dror Dror 2013-12-23 06:37:26 737
Dror, green leaf will also be utilized as carbon source. You need to select B 12 producing bacterium/bacteria of your choice (later to be maintained as seed) from the known genera and check them first for their growth on your formulated medium and second for B12 production on this medium. Thank you and Good luck! Sonali Bhawsar - Author 2013-12-30 09:27:33 741

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 15258



Additional Articles:
•   Clean Rooms Nomenclature - Class 100, Class 1000 Areas.
•   Composted Animal Manure as Source of Crop Nutrients
•   Applications of Transgenic Animals in Biotechnology
•   Speciation Patterns | Sympatric Speciation by Polyploidy

Latest Articles in "Biotechnology-products" category:
•   How Biotechnology Helps Create Biofuels
•   Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): Procedure, Applications, Types
•   Biotechnology in the Manufacturing of Detergents
•   Marine Biotechnology and its Applications in Making Drugs
•   Agarose Gel DNA Electrophoresis - Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages
•   Biochemistry Analyzers: Uses and Types
•   Biomarkers and Diagnosis of Diseases
•   Trends in Biotech Engineered Vaccines
•   Biotechnology and Cosmetics
•   Technique of Gene Gun
•   Biotechnology in the Manufacture of Paper
•   Importance of Biofuels or Biodiesels and How they are produced.
•   Mussel Biopolymers: A Cloning Approach
•   Anthrax Detection Device and Toxic Mold Detection Device
•   Recombinant DNA Technology and the Pharmaceutical Industry
•   Process of Electroporation: Definition and Applications
•   Production of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Somatotropin
•   Somatic Cell Fusion- A Biotechnology Technique
•   Recombinant Protein Expression System


Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
| Home | Disclaimer | Xhtml |