Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article

Microbial Production of Vitamin B12

BY: Sonali Bhawsar | Category: Biotechnology-products | Submitted: 2011-02-15 03:51:21
       Author Photo
Article Summary: "Vitamin B12 is produced by microoorgamisms. There is no synthetic method known for the commercial production of this essential growth factor..."

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

Microbial production of vitamin B12

Vitamins are growth factors required in very small amounts but are very essential part of nutrition of humans, animals and even microbes. Chemically, vitamins are organic compounds. They also function as coenzymes or building blocks for coenzymes of several enzymes. Vitamin B12 is one of the important vitamins of B complex (B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid) group. It is also known as cobalamin or cobamide. Structurally, it is very complex compound or rather a group of closely related cobamides. The structure contains cobalt porphyrin nucleus attached to ribose and phosphate. Variations in structure may occur because of different purine, Benzimidazole or other chemical groups attached to cobalt atom. Being water soluble, it needs to be supplied regularly through food such as liver extract and meat. It is essential in the formation of red blood cells and its deficiency causes pernicious anemia. It functions as coenzyme in various cobalamin derivatives which are involved in molecular rearrangement reactions. Microbial synthesis is the only source of commercial production of vitamin B12. There is no other source or synthetic method known that produce B12 vitamin. Vitamin B12 is produced during normal microbial metabolism. In 1948, Rickes and colleagues, first time recovered B12 in active crystalline form from actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. Before this discovery, vitamin B12 was in use as antipernicious anemia factor for the treatment of anemic patients. Many different types of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes synthesize vitamin B12 but intestinal and rumen bacteria are most prevalent in its production in large amount. Two types of vitamin B12 re produced by microorganisms; one that promote growth only of microbes and other type which is required for normal growth in animals and humans. Commercially, vitamin B12 is synthesized by microbial fermentation. Hundreds of fermentation processes and their modifications have been employed on commercial scale. Some of them are described here.

1. Direct fermentation: In this process, Streptomyces olivaceus is grown in nutrient medium containing glucose as carbon source. Cobalt chloride, CoCl2 (less than 10ppm) is added as precursor at the beginning or intermittently during the production. Higher concentration of CoCl2 is generally toxic. Fermentation is carried out at 27˚C with aeration for about 5 days. At the end of incubation, growth is harvested before mycelial autolysis and destruction of vitamin. The vitamin is recovered from broth by filtration. A part of mycelium containing vitamin B12 is dried and used as cattle and poultry feed. Filtrate and remaining mycelia are acidified or treated with alcohol to recover the vitamin. Heat treatment is sometimes required for complete extraction of vitamin from mycelia; this vitamin is heat labile so heat is applied with caution and prior study. During acidification, sodium sulfite is added to stabilize the vitamin. Acidified broth is filtered to remove mycelial growth and filtrate is evaporated to dryness under vacuum. It can be further purified by treatment with acetone and ion exchange resins. Ultrapurified crystalline form of vitamin is used for medical use. Direct fermentation employing Bacillus megaterium, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas has also been used for commercial production of vitamin B12. These methods are similar with respect to recovery and extraction but different regarding yield, growth conditions and fermentation medium as per the requirement of fermentative culture.

2. Indirect production: Vitamin B12 is also obtained as byproduct of various antibiotic fermentation processes such as Grisein, Streptomycin and Aureomycin production. It is also formed during acetone-butanol fermentation. It is reported to be present in high concentration in sewage sludge.

3. Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering techniques has allowed us to change the byproduct status of this vitamin towards principle product, especially in case of Streptomyces fermentation. The strains of Streptomyces griseus have been developed via rigorous strain improvement programmes involving mutations and recombination techniques to yield more vitamin B12 as compared to antibiotic production. Genetic approaches like genome shuffling have also been applied in Propionibacterium shermanii to improve yields of vitamin B12.

About Author / Additional Info:

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)

Comments on this article: (23 comments so far)

Comment By Comment
2013-03-27 10:41:47 593
Meaningful procedures and methods
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2013-03-31 22:02:48 596
Thanks Aravindan, for reading it!
2013-05-21 13:20:12 634
Like it
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2013-06-03 23:39:29 639
Thank you!
2013-10-19 06:57:42 701
This article is very interesting and useful to me in searching for information on b-12. I hope to find more information on getting adequate amounts for humans of vitamin b-12 from plant sources, such as fermented food.
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2013-10-28 00:36:41 708
Thank you!
2013-12-23 06:37:26 737
Hi i want to produce B12 for myself using natural medium. like date as carbon source and green leaf as cobalt source. i can bland and sterilize it. do you have any suggestion on the medium? what kind of bacteria will be good for that and where can i get it? thanks dror
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2013-12-30 09:27:33 741
Dror, green leaf will also be utilized as carbon source. You need to select B 12 producing bacterium/bacteria of your choice (later to be maintained as seed) from the known genera and check them first for their growth on your formulated medium and second for B12 production on this medium. Thank you and Good luck!
Krishan Sadotra
2015-08-22 13:07:21 971
I found this article informative.Thank you for sharing with us.rnI have read somewhere that B12 is made in France and China only.Is that true?rnThis can not be very expensive to produce as suggested by your article by fermentation.rnLarge number of vegetarians are in India as compared to anywhere else in the world.And no manufacturer of vit B12 in India?
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2015-09-29 06:28:20 988
Hello Krishnan, Following are the pharma companies in India which manufacture Vit.B12 by microbial fermentation: 1. Navcure Pharma 2. Themis Medicare 3. Shreeji Pharma International 4. Piramal Healthcare 5. Wockhardt 6. Raptakos Brett 7. Alkem Thank you! Thank you!
Biki Borah
2015-10-27 00:55:53 993
Nice attempt.
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2015-11-05 02:47:58 997
Thanks a lot Biki!
2015-12-31 00:43:31 1021
madam. thanks, any method you could suggest for the purification of B12, which is already 98% pure. We require at least 50 mg to the level of 99.9% rn
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2016-01-22 07:32:56 1029
Dr. Dash, I will discuss with my collegues working in product development section of chemistry and let you know. thanks.
2016-02-01 08:39:49 1034
Thank you for the summary. I have a query that what are the general methods to quantify B12 ??
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2016-03-22 06:15:29 1050
Satish, there are many methods and their modifications one can do as per suitabilty : serological, biochemical, immunological, microbiological and molecular analytical techniques.
sanjay jhaveri
2016-04-15 06:20:56 1060
sonal medam i had read on B12 by fermentation process its very informative and very knowledge given rnmedam i wanted to know why we in India not commercially manufacturing we can not compete china whether they are bulk producer. can you please give the detilsrnsanjay jhaveri
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2016-05-06 04:50:27 1068
Bulk commercial production of Vit B12 in India may boost if funding for development of scale up processes gets available; also there is need to investigate role of natural substrates and waste products other than those used in routine protocols as production resources to enhance production. Thanks.
2016-08-05 18:04:37 1098
is it possible for enhancing vit b12 production by fermentation by controlling co2 concentration? also the yields in fermentation are normally 18 to 20%.please comment
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2016-08-29 06:47:33 1105
Dear avnswamy, You need to develop and try this particular protocol of controlled CO2 evolution and subsequent B12 production.
2016-09-26 11:07:18 1116
Good article. I was able to understand it clearly.
Sonali Bhawsar - Author
2016-10-29 02:13:08 1130
Thanks Hamini, glad to know the article was useful!
Harish Kumar
2016-12-08 00:27:07 1138
Thanks, a lot, I could understand a lot about B12 of my first reading. It is very useful...

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 43097

Additional Articles:

•   Agricultural Research Relationship With Development Policy

•   Micropropagation: Production of Quality Banana Planting

•   Potency of Guava Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans (Tooth Decay)

•   Naltrexone Drug in Treatment For Alcohol Dependence

Latest Articles in "Biotechnology-products" category:
•   How Biotechnology Helps Create Biofuels

•   Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): Procedure, Applications, Types

•   Biotechnology in the Manufacturing of Detergents

•   Marine Biotechnology and its Applications in Making Drugs

•   Agarose Gel DNA Electrophoresis - Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

•   Biochemistry Analyzers: Uses and Types

•   Biomarkers and Diagnosis of Diseases

•   Trends in Biotech Engineered Vaccines

•   Biotechnology and Cosmetics

•   Technique of Gene Gun

•   Biotechnology in the Manufacture of Paper

•   Importance of Biofuels or Biodiesels and How they are produced.

•   Mussel Biopolymers: A Cloning Approach

•   Anthrax Detection Device and Toxic Mold Detection Device

•   Recombinant DNA Technology and the Pharmaceutical Industry

•   Process of Electroporation: Definition and Applications

•   Production of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Somatotropin

•   Somatic Cell Fusion- A Biotechnology Technique

•   Recombinant Protein Expression System

Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 - Do not copy articles from this website.

Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  

  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us