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  • Anti-bacterial Activity of Root Extract of Biophytum Sensitivum (L.) DC. [PDF]    By: Lurdu Mary

    Medicinal plants are very interesting have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum L. DC (Oxalidaceae) is used as traditional medicine to cure various disease and also is an ethnomedicinal plant used in folk lore medicine. The main aim of this study demonstrates the root extracts of Biophytum sensitivum (Acetone, Benzene, Ethanol, Iso-prophyl alcohol and N- butyl alcohol) was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against several human pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris) by disc agar diffusion method. All the extracts showed various levels of activity on different test organisms and their activity is quite comparable with the standard antibiotics. The n-butyl alcohol extracts of Biophytum sensitivum root showed remarkable anti bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The results from these investigations encourage that the plant extracts may be used as anti-infective agents. >> Category: Biology
  • Antioxidants from Plant Sources: A Review    By: Dr. Priyanka Chandra

    This article is a review of antioxidants from plant sources. Antioxidants are used in dietary supplements in the hope of maintaining health and preventing diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of fresh vegetables, fruits, tea and wines, which are proved as good source of natural antioxidants and are associated with reduced risk of heart disease. This is the reason for the strong interest in natural antioxidants and their role in human health and nutrition >> Category: Biology
  • Deep Insight of Intron Splicing Mechanism    By: Sachidanand Tiwari

    Introns are intervening sequences that are removed from primary transcripts by the process of RNA splicing, Efficient removal of introns, with single nucleotide precision is essential for eukaryotic cells to produce the correct complement of mRNA >> Category: Biology
  • Heat Shock Proteins: Role beyond Heat Stress    By: Sachidanand Tiwari

    HSP is well known for their protective action during stress conditions in plants. Recently interaction between HSP's and viral particles are seen which led the way for exploitation of these molecular chaperones for antiviral strategies >> Category: Biology
  • Concept of Free Radicals and Antioxidants    By: Dr. Priyanka Chandra

    During normal cellular activities, various processes inside of cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some of the most common ROS are hydrogen peroxide, superoxide ion, and hydroxide radical. These compounds, when present in a high enough concentration, can damage cellular proteins and lipids or form DNA adducts that may promote carcinogenic activity. The purpose of antioxidants in a physiological setting is to prevent ROS concentrations from reaching a high-enough level within a cell that damage may occur. Cellular antioxidants may be enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) or nonenzymatic (glutathione, thiols, some vitamins and metals, or phytochemicals such as isoflavones, polyphenols, and flavanoids). In normal physiological processes, antioxidants effect signal transduction and regulation of proliferation and the immune response. Reactive oxygen species have been linked to cancer and CVD, and antioxidants have been considered promising therapy for prevention and treatment of these diseases, especially given the tantalizing links observed between diets high in fruits and vegetables (and presumably antioxidants) and decreased risks for cancer. >> Category: Biology
  • Fungal Disease of Tomato and Its Management    By: Jitendra E Wayde

    Tomatoes crop and yield is suffered every year due to number of fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production. Diseases caused by fungus is develop through soil-borne, above-ground infections and in some instances are transmitted through pest and insect feeding. Conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. >> Category: Biology
  • Complete Feed Block Technology - A Fruitful Innovation    By: Dr. Minu Singh

    Complete Feed Block, is a technology which can help our farmers in balanced feeding of dairy animals and thereby, increasing milk production and profit incurred from dairy farming. Apart from being an economically viable technique, it has multiple advantages like easy transportation, cheaper storage, correcting multi-nutritional deficiency, easy handling and reduces feeding cost as locally available feed ingredients can be utilized. It can be stored for almost a year and therefore is helpful in seasons of fodder scarcity. >> Category: Biology
  • Plant Metabolomics : An Overview    By: Maithilee K

    The term metabolomics was coined by Oliver and his group in 1998. It is a study of biochemical profile and regulation of functions in whole organism by analyzing a metabolite pool present in organism. >> Category: Biology
  • Human Microbial Mutualism    By: Divya Narayan

    Mutualism is the mutually-beneficial association between two organisms. In the human body, mutualism is seen as a result of resident microbiota performing various functions in specific parts of the body where they are localized and undergo colonization. >> Category: Biology
  • Screening of Bacteria Producing Amylase and its Immobilization: A Selective Approach [PDF]    By: Debasish Mondal

    Bacillus sp produce amylase, so a selective approach was made to ease the screening of such stains from soil. Attempt was made to enhance the product by whole cell immobilization. >> Category: Biology
  • Select Yeast Cells that Flocculate in Due Time    By: Debasish Mondal

    A new reliable statistical method is proposed to check the flocculation characteristics of brewers yeast and select the best strain which flocculate in due time for brewing purpose. >> Category: Biology
  • Advancements and Potential of Regeneration Biology    By: Kartik Juyal

    Ideas, advancements and potential of the field of regeneration biology. Regeneration biology deals with studies of renewal, restoration and growth in organism making them resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage to the organism. >> Category: Biology
  • Breeding Methods for Asexually Propagated Crops and Clonal Selection Apomixes    By: Jadhav Shrinivas Shripati

    Multiplication of plants without the fusion of male and female gametes is known asexual reproduction. Multiplication of plants by vegetative parts through artificial method is known as artificial vegetative reproduction. >> Category: Biology
  • Plant Breeding Scope, Objectives and History    By: Jadhav Shrinivas Shripati

    Plant breeding can be defined as an art, a science, and technology of improving the genetic makeup of plants in relation to their economic use for the mankind. >> Category: Biology
  • Iron Siderophores - Types and Representative Microorganisms    By: Sumit Kumar Dubey

    Iron most often is present in two oxidation states namely ferric (Fe3+) and ferrous (Fe2+). Ferrous is soluble (biologically available) form of iron for biotic community whereas ferric is present as insoluble (biologically not available) oxide and hydroxide form of iron. Microorganisms release siderophores to scavenge iron from these oxide and hydroxide (mineral phases) by formation of soluble ferric ion complexes that can be taken up by biotic community via active transport mechanisms as a micronutrient. >> Category: Biology
  • Antigens and Antibodies Explained [PDF]    By: Shivam Gupta

    The detailed discussion on Antigens and Antibodies structures, antigen and antibody interactions, Polyclonal antibodies and Monoclonal Antibodies. >> Category: Biology
  • Antigens and Antibodies summary    By: Shivam Gupta

    The basic of Immune system about antigen and Antibodies, antigen and antibody interactions, Polyclonal antibodies and Monoclonal Antibodies >> Category: Biology
  • Hormone Treatment - A Popular Anti-Ageing Therapy    By: Debpratim Chakraborty

    Anti-ageing research refers to slowing, preventing, or reversing the aging process. Many researches have been carried out on hormone replacement to delay ageing process. Human growth hormone is the most effective with other hormones which also responsible for anti-ageing, like IGF-1, DHEA, and Testosterone. >> Category: Biology
  • Virus Structure [PDF]    By: Dr. Amit Ranjan Sahu

    The size of the virus is proportional to the size of the genome. But capsid proteins contribute more than viral genome towards total mass of the virion. Capsid formation involves both a single gene and multi gene products depending upon viruses. Studies on capsid assembly helps in designing various antiviral strategies. >> Category: Biology
  • Mutation Breeding - Types and Characterstics    By: Dr. Satish Kumar

    This article discusses about the different aspects of Mutation Breeding. Mutation is a sudden heritable change in a characteristic of an organism. >> Category: Biology
  • Nutrigenomics - The way forward for personalized nutrition    By: Rama Prashat G

    Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics which studies the interaction between nutrients and genes. Nutrients modulate the regulation and expression of coding genes of proteins, metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation. Nutrigenomics study focuses in discovering the specific response of each individual to food items, so that the individualized dietetic recommendations can be developed. >> Category: Biology
  • Marine Organisms: A Wide Source for Biologically Active Compounds    By: Nandan Nair

    Marine ecosystem is rich source of both biological and chemical compounds which are widely being used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutrition supplements, molecular probes, enzymes and agricultural chemicals. >> Category: Biology
  • Health Benefits of Passion Fruit    By: Divya Narayan

    All variants of passion fruit have numerous health benefits. Owing to its rich aroma and flavor, the juice of the passion fruit is often mixed with the juices of other fruits for aroma and flavor enhancement. >> Category: Biology
  • Link Between Apoptosis and Proliferation    By: Sivashanmugam A

    In school books, we have all studied programmed cell death (PCD), cell proliferation and tissue growth definition. Have we ever thought that these process are interlinked? Read further to know the answer. >> Category: Biology
  • Beneficial and Harmful Bacteria    By: Amna Adnan

    Bacteria is the most useful microorganism in the environment and beneficial for human beings. But it also has some harmful effects on human body. >> Category: Biology
  • Nitrate Pollution in Ground Water    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    Nitrate ion, the end product of oxidation process of nitrogen, is a plant nutrient, but beyond certain limits in the ground water, it is a potential threat to human health. Nitrate itself is harmless but when it is reduced to nitrite, it causes a rare disease in infants known as Methaemoglobenama (Blue Baby Syndrome) and stomach cancer in adults.It is perceived mainly as a chemical fertilizers used by farmers, but much of nitrate found in soil is produced by the microorganisms that decompose plant residues and other nitrogen containing residues present in the soil. Nitrate pollution in ground water is rising at an alarming rate in India. >> Category: Biology
  • Are Probiotics the Cure for Digestive, Mental & Neurological Disorders?    By: Lisa Opdycke

    A study published in the June edition of Gastroenterology presents the first evidence that dietary probiotics may modulate human brain activity. Healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after a yogurt regimen in order to measure brain response during emotion-recognition tasks. Study participants who consumed probiotic yogurt experienced neuro-connectivity changes. >> Category: Biology
  • Indices of Species Diversity - Part II    By: Sandhya Anand

    The term diversity is quite complex and attempts have been there to confine it within the definitons and mathematical equations. The resultant diversity indices are a key feature of communities which can throw light on many aspects of conservation. The article presents a brief overview of the commonest indices used in ecological studies. >> Category: Biology
  • Molecular Basis of Cancer - Oncogenes and Tumor Cells    By: sippy ISSAC

    Cancer is caused by generic change in a single cell resulting in its uncontrolled multiplication. Thus, tumours are monoclonal. Two types of regulatory genes- oncogenes and antioncongenes are involved in the development of cancer (carcinogenesis). In recent years, a third category of genes that control the cell death or apoptosis are also believed to be involved in carcinogenesis. >> Category: Biology
  • Various Methods for Quantitation of Proteins    By: kashika arora

    Determining protein concentration is important for protein characterization and purification. Various methods have been developed as each has its advantages and disadvantages. >> Category: Biology
  • Cell Cycle - Helping Know Cancer More!    By: kashika arora

    cell cycle progression, its regulatory proteins and its checkpoints have important roles in genetic alterations in most of the tumor cells. Using these as targets, we can design many therapeutics to control cancer. >> Category: Biology
  • Ecotones - The Transitional Zones    By: Medha Hegde

    Ecotone is an interface region between two different ecosystems, for instance a forest and grassland. In the ecology of landscape, an ecotone is the marginal area where 2 patches that have a distinct ecological composition meet. >> Category: Biology
  • Species Interactions - Interspecific Competition    By: Medha Hegde

    Interspecific competition (Inter refers to, among or between) is one in which members of one species experience a reduction in productiveness, survivorship, or development as a consequence of exploitation of resources or meddling by individuals of a second species. >> Category: Biology
  • Indicator Species - Important Monitoring Tools    By: Medha Hegde

    An indicator species is one whose existence, nonexistence, or comparative well-being in a given environment is an indication of the total health of its ecosystem.Indicator organisms are also utilized to analyse food, water or other samples for the likelihood of contamination by microorganisms. >> Category: Biology
  • Riftia Pachyptila - The Gaint Tube Worm    By: Medha Hegde

    The giant tube worm (Riftia pachyptila or tubeworm) are animals without a mouth, gut and legs that depend on microorganisms for food.Giant tube worms are seen everywhere in the pacific ocean where deep sea hydrothermal vents have been revealed. >> Category: Biology
  • Speciation Types | Formation of New Species    By: Medha Hegde

    What is Speciation? It is a elementary process responsible for the diversity of life. Understanding the common patterns and processes of speciation is fundamental to explaining the diversity of life. >> Category: Biology
  • Endosymbiont Theory - About the Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplast    By: Medha Hegde

    Endosymbiotic theory tries to explicate about the origins of cell organelles of eukaryotes such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. >> Category: Biology
  • Human Evolutionary Tale - Evolution of Homo Sapiens from Apes    By: Shivani Sharma

    don't all the terms like gene, coding region, phenotype, RNA motif, etc. leave you puzzled when it comes to a basic understanding of genomic and evolutionary concepts? Worry not! After all, we are Homo sapiens and the basic understanding towards our own genome and evolution should not be too difficult to interpret and infer. >> Category: Biology
  • The Regulation of Cell Cycle    By: Medha Hegde

    The somatic cell cycle also contains 'Gap' phases recognized as G1, which links the end of M phase to beginning of S phase in the next cycle and G2, which set apart the S and M phases. On the basis of environmental and developmental signals cells in G1 may briefly or permanently depart the cell cycle and enter a detained phase known as G0. >> Category: Biology
  • Conservation Biology- to Preserve the Diversity of Animals and Plants    By: Medha Hegde

    It is however within our capacity to alter appreciably the rate at which biotic diversity is damaged and tiny changes in rates can produce huge effects over long periods of time. >> Category: Biology
  • Genetic Sexing System: Elimination of a Particular Sex in the Population    By: Chandra Kala

    Genetic Sexing System is the method of elimination of one particular sex in the population and is a kind of Sterile Insect Technique under Biological control method. Advanced research should be aimed in developing Genetic Sexing Systems for major vectors of human diseases and also in Sericulture. >> Category: Biology
  • Biological Control of Insect Pests    By: Chandra Kala

    Biological control of insect pests is one of the methods of controlling insect pests by use of living organisms. Biological control method application in the field results in many beneficiaries to human as well as nature. The foods grown using Biological control methods are free from any harmful pesticides, which makes the food safe for consumption. >> Category: Biology
  • Extremophiles - Organisms Thriving in Harshest of the Environments    By: Medha Hegde

    'Extremophile' is a term that refers to bacteria that are able to grow and sustain in extremely harsh environments when compared to the environments that are termed as favourable for the growth of bacteria. The discovery of extremophiles has increased speculation of chances for bacterial life on planets such as Mars, Europa (moon of Jupiter) and other stellar bodies. >> Category: Biology
  • Karyotype and Its Applications in Human Health    By: Chandra Kala

    Karyotype is the science of sorting and arranging metaphase chromosomes according to their size, shape, and structure. Karyotyping can be done from any somatic cells which undergo cell division. The main applications of Karyotyping are in detection of chromosomal aberrations such as duplications, deletions, and translocations and finding ploidy of chromosomes. >> Category: Biology
  • Polytene Chromosomes: Applications in Cytology and Taxonomy    By: Chandra Kala

    Polytene chromosomes are a type of Giant chromosomes which were discovered by Balbiani. Polytene chromosome is formed due to replication of genetic material without cell division and mitotic synapsis of homologues chromosomes. Polytene chromosomes have wide application in the field of cytology, gene expression, evolution and speciation. >> Category: Biology
  • X-Linked Diseases: Are Males the Victims?    By: Chandra Kala

    X-Linked diseases are the diseases that are expressed due to the presence of defective genes on X chromosomes. The defective genes are passed from father to all daughters and from mother to half of the progeny including both males and female and never transmitted for father to son. In nature, the females are protected and males are made vulnerable for the recessive X linked genes. >> Category: Biology
  • Dosage Compensation: How Male Equals Female in Gene Expression    By: Chandra Kala

    X-chromosomal inactivation or Dosage compensation is the wonderful mechanism developed in nature to unify the level of gene expressions in both sexes. Coat color of mammals is classical example of X chromosome inactivation. The advanced research in X-chromosome inactivation can solve the problems associated with X-linked diseases. >> Category: Biology
  • Sex Determination: From Insects to Mammals    By: Chandra Kala

    Sex determination is the process of determining sex of the organism. In Nature, the process of Sex determination is fascinating and there are many models described to explain the same. This article focuses on the major sex determination mechanisms from Insects to Mammals including Birds and Reptiles. There are four major kinds of sex determination mechanism described such as autosome to X chromosome ratio, haploid / diploid mechanism, XY or ZW mechanism and climatic factor in determining the sex of the individuals. >> Category: Biology
  • Overview of Biomolecules    By: VIVEK VYAS

    The molecules which are produced by living animals are known as biomolecules this includes large macromolecules like protein, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids and small molecules like metabolites , and natural products. These molecules are also known as biogenic substances. >> Category: Biology
  • General Inroduction on Biological Sources of Proteases    By: Kirti Rani

    Proteases are widely distributed in most of biological source (plant and animal sources). They are ubiquitous with wide diversity of sources such as plants and animals. >> Category: Biology

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