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  • Isolation of Plasmid DNA From E.Coli Part-2    By: amar nagesh

    Alkaline lyses method was used for the isolation of plasmid from bacterial cells. The method used was as described in cloning manual (Sambrook et al., 1989)... >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Isolation of Plasmid DNA From E.Coli Part-1    By: amar nagesh

    Step by step procedure for the isolation of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli. A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains important genetic information for the growth of bacteria. In nature, this information is often a gene that encodes a protein that will make the bacteria resistant to an antibiotic.A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA (about 2,000 to 10,000 base pairs) that contains important genetic information for the growth of bacteria. In nature, this information is often a gene that encodes a protein that will make the bacteria resistant to an antibiotic. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Risk Modeling    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The scientific technique used to detect the possible risks of GEOs is called risk modeling. It includes both laboratory and field techniques. The identification of possible risks of GEOs is the first step of risk modeling. We cannot know the risk suitable experiments are carried out under the laboratory conditions. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Risk Assessment For GEOs    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Possible Dangers of GEO: Environmentalists and medical professionals argue the deliberate release of GEOs in the nature. They say that, though beneficial today, GEOs will be a source of threat to the existence of man and animals on the earth. Hence scientists have decided to assess the possible risks, the GEO will produce before releasing the GEO. The process of assessing possible risks of GEOs is called risk assessment or risk evaluation. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Transgenic Virus Resistant Plants.    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Viral infection causes substantial plants and crop loss every year. It reduces the rate of photosynthesis and growth vigor. The net result is the low yield and income. Viral infection does not take place in plants already infected with certain viruses. The principle is called cross protection. By using this principle plant genetic engineers have been developing transgenic virus resistant plants. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Restriction Endonuclease: Molecular Scissor    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The nuclease enzyme that cuts the DNA at a unique sequence, is called restriction endonuclease.They cut the DNA in a non-terminal region. Restriction endonucleases are used to generate rejoinable DNA fragments. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Popular Enzymes used in Genetic Engineering    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    A description of enzymes commonly used in the field of Genetic Engineering. Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that makes a DNA strand using mRNA that makes a DNA strand using mRNA as a template strand. Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that makes a DNA strand using mRNA that makes a DNA strand using mRNA as a template strand. Klenow enzyme is a product of enzymatic breakdown of DNA polymerase I from E. coli. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Genetic Engineering in Pharmaceuticals    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The cloned genes are utilized commercially in various fields such as pharmaceuticals, industry, agriculture, pollution control, medical science.The production of medically useful human peptides and proteins (e.g. human growth hormones, insulin, somatostanin and interferon) are of much importance. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Insulin : Journey of the Only Hormone Which Reduces Blood Sugar    By: Smyl Smyl

    Insulin is an important hormone in reducing blood sugar . Genetic engineering has made it easy to produce using bacterial cell. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Economic Importance of Azospirillum    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Azospirillum is a gram negative, symbiotic, vibrioid soil bacterium. It occurs in large numbers in association with roots of cereals, grasses and tuber crops. Azospirillum fixes about 20-40 kg of the atmospheric nitrogen under microaerobic conditions. And it increases the vegetative growth and crop yield in many plants. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System: The Army Behind Our Body Health | SCID Disorder    By: Smyl Smyl

    Immunology is a vast area to get familiarize with and here is quick look into it( study about immune defense system). SCID is one of the inherited immune disorder, gene therapy is offering solution to it.... >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The process of getting more oil from oil wells by injecting suitable microbes or microbial products into the oil reservoir, is called microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR). It is also called tertiary oil recovery. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Biosensors: On-line Measurements and Continuous Operations    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Biosensors are suitable systems for on-line measurements and continuous operations. They are small in size, easy to work, quick in action, very sensitive to measure tiny amount of test molecules and relatively very cheap. So they are put into many practical uses in medicines, industries and environmental control. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction - Applications of the PCR Technology    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a simple and ingenuous method for exponentially amplification of specific DNA sequences by [i]in vitro[/i] DNA synthesis. This technique has made it possible to synthesize large quantities of a DNA fragment without cloning it. The PCR technique has now been automated and is carried out by a specially designed machine. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • MicroRNA: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target (MiRNA)    By: AMAN. GUPTA

    Researchers put there effort for find out about the molecular mechanisms of development of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a great deal in therapeutics and diagnosis of cancer and can be used for targeting, inhibiting, and initiating a particular gene that are expressed in cancer. Therefore these small RNA molecules could hold great potential therapeutically in the battle against cancer. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction - Primer Designing, Components and Steps of PCR    By: amar nagesh

    This article describes about steps of PCR, what is polymerase chain reaction, components of PCR, conditions required for PCR, and general PRIMER designing is explained. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Isolation of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The process of screening a pure culture by separating one type of microbes from a mixture is called isolation. A culture containing only one species of microbe is called pure culture. In a mixed culture, a particular species is present in small numbers in comparision to the numbers of others. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Types of Gene Mutations : Heritable Changes    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Mutation refers to any heritable change in nucleotide sequence of a gene of the organisms. A gene codes for a protein and so the physical and chemical properties of proteins are changed due to alteration in genes. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbiological Biofertilizers - Mass Production and Phosphorous Nutrition    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Biological nitrofertilizers play a vital role to solve the problems of soil fertility, soil productivity and environmental quality. Anabaena azollae, is a cyanobacteria lives in symbiotic association with the free floating water fern Azolla. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Relationship of Microorganisms and Amino Acids    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Some enzymes acids have been produced in Japan by bacterial fermentation. Their biosynthesis is now possible by genetically manipulating and physiologically altering the microorganism. Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacteriumflavum are involved in the synthesis of L-lysine and L-theronine from a common intermediate, aspartic acid. The regulatory mutants of bacteria lysine in sufficient amount. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Production of Vitamins - Various Phases of Fermentation    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Liver extracts cure pernicious anaemia in human beings. Cyanocobalamine vitamin is present in a very small amount in every animal tissue including human blood but it is synthesized only by microorganisms.Riboflavin is also present in other foods (liver, heart, kidney, eggs) as flavoproteins which contains the prosthetic group FMN (flavin mononucleotide) or FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide). >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Interferon - A Protein Molecule    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Interferon is a protein molecule. It is produced by the cells when they are exposed to viral infection for the first time and protects the cells against the second viral infection. An interferon acts only in the same species in which it was produced. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • A Nutshell on Vaccines - Types of Vaccines    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    A suspension of killed or modified live virus or bacterium being injected in to the body to stimulate immunity against the pathogen, is called vaccine. The process of injecting a vaccine in to the body is known as vaccination. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • A Brief Account of Tissue Culture    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Animal tissue culture is an important tool in modern biology. It has been put into many practical uses relating to human welfare.Organ culture refers to the rearing of an organ in vitro from an appropriate tissue. The whole organ cannot be grown in vitro as it is made up of different types of cells. The parts of the organ consisting of an identical cells can be made by tissue culture. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Bioremediation - Removal of Toxic Contaminants From the Environment    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    What is Bioremediation? Use of the natural microbial populations in cleaning the toxic and hazardous contaminants in the environment is Bioremediation. Microbes act as catalysts to reduce the level of hazardness of toxic chemicals. It mainly covers the treatment of hazardous substances such as oil sludges in the soil and radioactive wastes in effluents. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Transgenic Animals Examples and Various Processes    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    When the animals are genetically manipulated by introducing a gene, they are said to be transgenic animals or transgenics. The foreign gene which is inserted expresses its character in the animal and inherited for generation. These transformed animals - transgenics produce some valuable therapeutic proteins, more milk & represent fast growth. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • DNA Fingerprinting - Biotechnological Process    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The technology that uses living organisms to produce and improve desired products or to manipulate the environment is Biotechnology. DNA fingerprinting is also known as DNA profiling or molecular fingerprinting. To identify the individuals according to their DNA printing pattern is DNA fingerprinting.It is used to get the information about the genetic relationship of an individual. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Central Dogma - The Backbone of Molecular Biology    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the processes and phenomenon involved in central dogma and describes how central dogma is actually a key element in understand the basic molecular biology. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Gene Therapy Introduction and Vectors - Problems in Gene Therapy    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    In gene therapy a normal gene is inserted into the genome to replace an abnormal disease-causing gene. A vector (carrier molecule) must be used to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells. The most common vector is a virus that has been genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Varieties of PCR and Their Primer Design - A Through Study | Part-2    By: amar nagesh

    This section discusses various PCR types including Hot Start PCR, Inverse PCR, Nested PCR and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and its applications. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Varieties of PCR and Their Primer Design - A Through Study | Part-1    By: amar nagesh

    There are so many types of PCR avilable. In this article all the types of PCR and the designing of primers for each type of PCR has been described. This section discusses Allele-Specific PCR, Assembly PCR, Asymmetric PCR, Late-PCR and Colony PCR. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Central Dogma of Molecular Biology - What is Known Till Now?    By: amar nagesh

    The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information. Flow of biological information, Replication, Transcription, Translation are briefly described in this article >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Examples of Bioresearch - Applications and Advantages of Bioresearch    By: Shalini Balan

    These are some of the Bioresearches which have the basis of biotechnology and would be implemented in the future. Examples, applications and advantages of Bioresearch. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Types Of Gene Therapy - Advantages And Disadvantages of Gene Therapy    By: Shalini Balan

    This article discusses about gene therapy and its different types with its benefits and disadvantages. Gene therapy technique was introduced for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Principles of PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction    By: amar nagesh

    Each and every laboratory will have different protocols for PCR operartion. In this article utility, principles and designing of primers in PCR is described >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Potential Economic Benefits From Microbial Enzyme - Proteases    By: soumya T.V

    Proteases are the highest value commercial enzyme. microbial proteases constitute the major share of the enzyme industry because of their number of practical applications in dairy, food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industries and collectively account for about 60% of the total worldwide enzyme sales. ability >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Biotechnological Possibilities For the Use and Application of Coir Fibre    By: soumya T.V

    The coconut husk fibres are predominantly composed of lignocellulosic material.Coir fibre is in great demand on account of its durability,water absorption,low cost & other properties. The coir industry can be made a biotechnology based one where the possibilities of this abundantly available raw material can be exploited to the greatest extent. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • A Detailed Review on Feeder-free Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cells    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Human Embryonic Stem cells (hESC) are derived from blastocysts. They are grown in strict culture conditions and offer a promising future in applications such as cell therapy, drug development and drug discovery. It is known that hESC cells can be derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEF) or humans. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Financial and Marketing Aspects of Qnexa    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Incidence and Prevalence of Obesity It is a well known fact that obesity is currently a growing concern which affects more than one-third of the American population. It is mainly caused due to the increase in body weight as a result of excessive accumulation of fat in the body. Obesity is linked to many life threatening diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is calculated from a person's weight and height. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Assessment of QNEXAA in the US Market    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The objective of this assessment was to evaluate QNEXA®, a drug for anti-obesity developed by Vivus Inc. During this work, the market opportunity for the drug, marketing strategy, financial aspects and the risks associated with it were reviewed. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Vaccine For Rotavirus    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The development of a vaccine is the ultimate treatment against this virus. This vaccine must duplicate the role played by the natural immunity. Vaccine program must include the prevention of moderate to severe disease. Over the last 2-3 decades many vaccines have been developed of which the 'jennerian' vaccines were the first to be introduced. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • All About Rotavirus and It's Virology    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The name rotavirus comes from the Latin word 'rota' (means wheel), and it indeed looks like a wheel. Rotavirus, a non-enveloped virus with an 11-segment double stranded RNA genome, was first found in humans using electron microscopy in biopsies from children with acute gastroenteritis, before being first spotted in animals in 1960's. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Degradation of Phenanthrene and Anthracene by Pseudomonas Strain    By: Hardik pathak

    A bacterial strain was isolated from a Mumbai coastal area. It was dosed with anthracene and phenanthrene, and, after 14 days of incubation, it had degraded 90% and 93% of the anthracene and phenanthrene, respectively. Anthracene showed four Metabolites and phenanthrene showed two metabolited.The metabolites were extracted and identified by UV-Visible light absorption, HPLc and GC MS. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Physico-Chemical Properties of Petroleum Polluted Soil Collected From Transport    By: Hardik pathak

    In the last few years, large numbers of ecosystems have changed by the significant influence of human activity. Most of the petroleum goes in the ecosystem via leakage of coastal oil refineries. This fact evoked the interest of scientists to investigate the oil distribution system and its fate in the environment, especially the soil environment. Bioremediation of these contaminants is a prerequisi >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Challenges and Solutions in Pediatric Clinical Trials - Part III    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Perspectives of clinicians can also pose as a barrier for the recruitment of pediatric subjects. Clinicians are asked to recruit children for research studies. This involves time and effort as there is consent to be taken from parents and describe the studies to both the children and parents. This time could be used to treat patients instead. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Need for Pediatric Formulations in Clinical Trials - Part II    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    For most of the drugs, efficacy studies are not carried out for children differently but just cut and copy pasted from adult data. Disodium pamidronate is licensed for use in Paget's disease and osteolytic lesions and bone pain in multiple myeloma and breast cancer in adults, but it has also been used in a variety of pediatric conditions. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Introduction to Pediatric Participation in Clinical Trials - Part I    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Medicine and healthcare, for all these years, have been evidence-based in the case of adults, and will continue to be so. However, the quality and efficacy of research in pediatrics are mostly based on anecdotal data and extrapolation of data from adult research. Over 50% of the medications used for children are used as 'off-label' and there have been no records of testing them in children. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Proteasomes and Their Biological Significance    By: Sandhya Anand

    The article briefly summarizes the importance of proteasomes in drug designing, biological significance and exploratory studies on evolution. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Adaptive Immune Responses to Fungal Infections    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The adaptive immune responses to fungal infection involve the cell mediated and humoral responses. The cell mediated responses include effector cells and the humoral effector molecules include antibodies which play a role in combating fungal infections. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • IPEX - A Detailed Review    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    IPEX is immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked syndrome. It is a rare inborn error of the immune regulation characterised by early onset of one or more autoimmune diseases in boys. IPEX occurs due to mutations in Foxp3. >> Category: Biotech Research

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