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  • Mechanism and Suppression by T Regulatory Cells    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    T regulatory cells are very essential for the modulation of immune responses. There are four basic modes of action namely: 1. Suppression by inhibitory cytokines: Inhibitory cytokines like interleukin 10 and TGF- β have been mediators of Treg cell induced suppression. It was always thought that Tregs function in a contact dependent manner hence the involvement of IL10 and TGF β was thought twice about. Tregs control disease in a manner that is dependent on IL10 and TGF β. An allergen challenge occurs after which CD4+ effector T cells are stimulated and these produce large amounts of IL-10 in lung by allergen specific Tregs and these control diseases. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Applications of Immobilized Enzymes    By: Aritri Ghosh

    Immobilized enzymes are applied for various production process of biological substances in commercial way. A brief nature of the use of immobilized enzyme is discussed here >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Techniques Used for Immobilization of Enzymes    By: Aritri Ghosh

    The commonly employed techniques for immobilization of enzymes are adsorptions, entrapment, covalent binding and crosslinking. Enzyme immobiliztion has many advantages and it is done my many processes which are desciribed here, >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Commercial Production of Enzymes    By: Aritri Ghosh

    Enzymes are needed in many biological research work and for medicinal purposes in a great quantity. Commercial processes are thus used for bulk production of several enzymes. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • T Regulatory Cells a Thorough Understanding    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    It has been a misunderstanding that allergies and autoimmune diseases are caused due to imbalance in Th1/Th2 activity but this is due to the T regulatory cells (Tregs). The T regulatory cells were first named as suppressor cells as they suppress activation of the immune responses hence maintaining homeostasis and tolerance to self antigens. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Cell Viability and Cytotoxicity Assays - Part 2    By: Aritri Ghosh

    These are the assays to determine cell viability and cell cytotoxicity. The tests to determine the cell viability and cell cytotoxicity have a short term result as they identify the dead or live cells at the time of the assays. Many times when the cells are subjected to toxicity such as exposure to drugs, irradiation etc the effects are not immediate. The effects are observed after several hours or sometime after some days. The assays based on the survival of cells like retention of regenerative capacity or reproductive capacity is preferred. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Cell Viability and Cytotoxicity Assays - Part 1    By: Aritri Ghosh

    Cell viability and cell cytotoxicity are determined by several assays.Some of them are listed here. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Assay Development For Drug Discovery    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    In order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease, understanding the development of drug assays/screens that target essential and specific cellular and molecular processes that cause the disease. This in turn enhances the probability of discovering target- specific drug candidates that will be less toxic. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Drug Development and Some Important Concepts with Examples    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Drugs are chemical compounds which prevent diseases and infections. Anciently plants/plant parts were used to ameliorate certain disease symptoms. Chinese/Indians/German herbal medicines have been used for years. The methodology to use plants for treatment is to isolate the pharmacologically active drug from the plant and hence treat. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • All About Elisa And Immunoelectrophoresis    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    ELISA was developed in 1971 by two groups independently, namely Engvall and Perlmann, and Werman and Schuurs. Later Vollar and Clark and Adams utilized ELISA for detection of virus infection. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Cytokines and Immune Responses to Trichuris Muris    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Trichuris muris infection is characterized by crypt hyperplasia, eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucosal mastocytosis. The T helper cells produced type 1 cytokines IFN-γ, lymphotoxin and IL-2; stimulated IgG2a production and cell mediated effector responses. The type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9 and IL-13 were secreted by Th2 cells in absence of type 1 cytokines and promoted production of IgE and IgG1. Resistance to intestinal nematodes was associated with the development of a Th2 response. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering    By: Kanya Sasi

    Genetic engineering involves manipulation of the genetic material towards a desired end in a direct and pre-determined way. This is alternatively called recombinant DNA technology or gene cloning.In short Gene cloning is essentially the insertion of a specific piece of 'desired DNA' into a host cell in such a way the inserted DNA is replicated and handed onto daughter cells during cell division. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Lyphocyte Populations and their Contribution During Trichuris Muris Infection    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The role of T cells in mediating resistance and susceptibility to the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode T. muris has been well defined. This is due to the existence of strains of mice which are resistant and susceptible to the parasite and early observations of polarized T helper responses in these strains. The importance of the thymus as a source of T cell was confirmed by careful observation >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Trichuris Muris Infection - Immune Response and Lifecycle    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Gastrointestinal helminth infections are widespread across the globe and throughout the animal kingdom where they are responsible for the loss of productivity in cattle and other livestock. They cause infections in humans too which has a considerable impact as they infect over 1 billion people worldwide. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Similarities and Differences Between TCR and MHC    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Somatic hypermutation increases the BCR by bringing about point mutations in the V regions of both chains. The somatic mutations is brought about by an enzyme AID which is activation induced cytidine deaminase and this is expressed in B cells but do not occur in TCR genes. AID is active only in activated B cells and these increase DNA damage thereby leading to a mutation. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Mechanisms in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    There are many mechanisms which lead to polymorphisms. The mechanisms differ from MHC to antibody/TCR genes. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Polymorphisms in Major Histocompatability Complex    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    There are many genetic mechanisms which generate new alleles. New alleles arise by point mutations or by gene conversion. Here in gene conversion one gene is replaced in part by sequences from a different gene. Mutations can be replacement and silent substitution. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Principles and Techniques Behind Bacterial Transformation    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    The techniques employed in the insertion of plasmids into bacterial cells. Transformation was demonstrated by Frederick Griffith in 1928 when he discovered that a non-virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae converted to a virulent form after exposure to heat-killed virulent strains. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Restriction Digestion of DNA    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    Importance of restriction digestion as a tool in DNA analysis. It is sometimes called as DNA fragmentation. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Application of RAPD in Molecular Biology    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    Why Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is an important Molecular Biology technique. It is a PCR reaction in which the amplified target DNA is unknown. A large genetic material (DNA) of unknown origin or composition can be effectively profiled using this technique. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • All About Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antibodies    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) occupies 3.6Mb on chromosome 6. Genes present in the MHC bind peptides of either intracellular or extracellular origin and present them to T cells. When these peptides are recognised as foreign the T cells initiate an immune response. So far there are 128 functional genes in MHC which are known. MHC is a multigene family which control self/nonself recognition >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction - Applications of PCR    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    A Molecular Biology tool that is used for amplification of minute quantities of DNA. It is used for amplification of DNA for cloning purposes and for creating hybridization probes. It can be used to identify DNA fingerprints and perform paternity testing. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Metagenomics- The Key to Unculturable Microorganisms    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    How metagenomics may offer access to unknown genes and metabolic pathways. Metagenomics is the genomic analysis of microbial communities directly from environmental samples. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Immunoglobulin Genes and the B Cell Development    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The immune system recognizes foreign molecules (antigens) through special receptors which enables them to elicit an immune response against them. The adaptive immune system has B-lymphocytes as one of the main players which produce antibodies as their antigen recognizing molecules. Each antibody/immunoglobulin molecule has a unique recognition site which is specific for a particular epitope. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Antibodies- Conserved and Variable Regions    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Antibodies are the secreted form of the B-cell receptor. An antibody is identical to the B-cell receptor of the cell that secretes it except for a small portion of the C-terminus of the heavy-chain constant region. In the case of the B-cell receptor the C-terminus is a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring sequence, and in the case of antibody it is a hydrophilic sequence that allows secretion. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Siderophores the Iron Chelators    By: PIYUSH JOSHI

    Siderophores a low molecular weight protein molecules, which chelate the free iron present in the soil and thus making the iron unavailable to the deleterious microorganism and in turn help in Plant growth promotion. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System Components Involved in Defence Against Viruses    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells are chiefly involved in defence against viruses. Besides these cells, B lymphocytes also play a role in defence, when the T lymphocytes attack the virus the B lymphocytes simultaneously produce antibodies. So that on exposure to the same virus for a second time, the antibody prevents infection. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System Components For Defence Against Intracellular Bacteria    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen; it grows inside the vesicles of (mostly) macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These bacteria are protected from the effects of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells. They cannot be destroyed as they escape acidification in the vesicles due to presence of mycolic acid in their cell walls. Thus, in order to destroy these T and NK cells are involved. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System Components For Defence Against Extracellular Pathogens    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The antibodies, phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) and complement are the major components of the immune system which provide defence against extracellular bacteria. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are also involved, they are present on the surface of the phagocytic cells and recognize specific patterns on the pathogens and are thus, able to phagocytosize them. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Theories of Sex predominance | Women and Men Differences    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The body's innate aversion to self destruction is called as autoimmunity. This was first noted by Ehrlich and Morgenroth. It was found that the injection of self antigens failed to elicit an immune response in the autologous host. The goats which were immunized failed to recognise and produce their own antibodies. Thus was coined the concept horror autotoxicus. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Autoimmunity - Overview and Classification of Autoimmune Diseases    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Immune system is like any other system which leads to failure of some or all the parts. This failure can lead to disastrous consequences. When the immune system fails to recognize its own cells and begins to destroy them the result is autoimmunity. It was Paul Ehrlich who coined autoimmunity and termed this condition as 'horror autotoxicus.' >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Xenotransplantaion - A Boon Or Bane (Part 1)    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The use of human organs for transplantation was the initial trend, but due to the shortage of human organs xenotransplantation came into picture. From an immunological perspective nonhuman animals would be better donors for transplantation of organs however, most of these species are either endangered or are too small to provide organs for the transplantation. Use of pigs avoided these problems. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Transplantation: A Medical Breakthrough    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Transplantation has been a medical miracle. The use of organs from human organ donors, and their transplantation into patients having an organ failure has lead to successful allo-transplantations. The use of human organs for transplantation however, have led to acute shortage of human organs and have led to the death of many. In order to solve this problem organs from animals were considered. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Aptamers : A Novel DNA-RNA Approach in Biotechnological Research    By: Sandhya Anand

    Aptamers are oligonucleotide sequences carrying out specific functions. These novel molecules are selected from random pools of such DNA/RNA sequences based on their binding ability and are emerging fast as new method of therapy. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Some Genetic Manipulations of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Investigation of mps genes from different PSB presents great potential for future improvement of PGPR strains as efficient bioinoculants for sustainable agriculture. In the present article, various attempts of genetic manipulation of PSB have been discussed. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Phosphate Solubilization    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Phosphorus is treated by PSM in 3 different ways: solubilization, mineralization and immobilization. Insoluble phosphates are dissolved by acidification, chelation or proton extrusion mechanisms. Solubilization by means of acidification of growth medium, that means the production of organic and inorganic acids is the most common mechanism found in PSM. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Symbiotic Associations of Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    It would be very interesting to know about symbiotic associations of bacteria with different animals including human beings, protozoa, algae, fungi and plants. You will see nature's very complex but highly coordinated interactions of different living forms. There could be more examples of bacterial associations with other organisms; only few of them are described in this article to get an idea about versatility of bacterial interactions. There could also be a possibility of existence of novel interactions which we still have not been discovered so this would be one of the areas of investigation for enthusiastic researchers. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Bacterial Antifreeze Proteins and Its Applications    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are structurally diverse group of proteins that have the ability to modify ice crystal structure. AFPs create a difference between the melting point and freezing point known as thermal hysteresis (TH) is a measure of the antifreeze activity. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Structural Feature of Cold Actives Enzymes    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    Enzymes are biological catalyst and involved in most of the chemical reaction in the cell, those are necessary for the cell survival. Adaptation of the cell to the low temperature calls for presence of intracellular enzymes, which are active at low temperature. A wide range of molecular determinants confer conformation flexibility of enzymes. These determinants involved in protein stability are ei >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Improving Micronutrients Acquisition Efficiency Through Transgenic Technology    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    Advancements made in recent years in the area of recombinant DNA technology have provided an altogether new dimension to agricultural research. For instance, engineering plants with improved nutrient uptake may help in sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century. Molecular genetic tools have given the researcher the possibility to identify key regulatory steps in the acquisition of nutrients by plants. There are now convincing evidences that the genes coding for several target traits, mainly the transporters and other mechanisms for nutrients acquisition opens up several options to improve nutrient uptake and utilization in soils with low fertility. The transfer of the corresponding genes to agriculturally important crops might therefore allow to increase their nutrient uptake capacity. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • The Process of Brewing: Technical Aspects and Market Potential    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    This article gives an elaborate account of the process of brewing. Making of beer and wine is described in detail. It also deals with information regarding byproducts, diseases and market value of alcohol production process. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Proteomics - A Promising Approach of Biotechnology    By: Shikha Sharma

    The advent of large-scale DNA sequencing has transformed biological research in a short span of time. With the advancement in the discovery of most human genes, the next necessity is to explore the key molecules (proteins) responsible for biological problems so as to achieve an in-depth knowledge of complex biological processes. In this article, the crucial contribution of proteomics to our understanding of biology and medicine, through the global analysis of gene products, is discussed. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Algal Biotechnology - Importance and Applications    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Algae do not require prepared and fertilized land for their growth. They can grow on marginal land like salinated or drought affected hard soils. They also grow in waste water effluents or sewage or even waste water from nuclear reactors. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Solid-Phase Oligonucleotide Synthesis    By: Shikha Sharma

    One of the experimental techniques that played a key part in the rapid development of genetic engineering is the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides of defined structure. The chemistry of deoxyoligonucleotide synthesis has been the subject of study for many years. Currently, the phosphoramidite method of chemical DNA synthesis is the procedure of choice. Chemical synthesis takes place in the 3'-5' direction (reverse of the biological polymerization direction). >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Animal Pharming: Projects, Commercial Products and Ethical Issues    By: Akash Mukherjee

    This is the second article of a 2-part series. This series is on Animal Pharming, and the problems that arise while doing it. It also covers some application based examples of it, along with the bioethical issues associated with it. This section deals with some interesting pharming projects, commercial products, bioethical issues and the bottomline. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Animal Pharming: Problems, Transgenic Animal Creation and Procedure    By: Akash Mukherjee

    This is the first article of a 2-part series. This series is on Animal Pharming, and the problems that arise while doing it. It also covers some application based examples of it, along with the bioethical issues associated with it. This section deals with introduction to pharming, problems with bacerial cultures and the procedure of transgenic animal creation. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Shikimate Pathway in Vibrio Cholerae    By: Akash Mukherjee

    This is an article on the Theoretical-background of one of my unpublished research on structure determination of 3-Dehydroquinate dehydratase. Bioinformatical results can be made available on request. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Biostatistics - Statistical Analysis in Life Processes    By: Zandro Cabaral

    This article is an outlook on what is biostatistics and how it is used in biotech researches. Biostatistics is the science which deals with the plans and methods of collecting, tabulating, and analyzing numerical facts and figures in life processes. >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Potency of Guava Extract Against Streptococcus Mutans (Tooth Decay)    By: Zandro Cabaral

    Article about the study of antimicrobial potency of guava extract to treat and fighting tooth decay due to Streptococcus Mutans >> Category: Biotech Research
  • Psychrophilic Enzymes - A Boon to Modern Industry    By: Pournami Gouthaman

    Psychrophilic enzymes are cold active biocatalysts obtained from cold loving microbes. These enzymes have extensive application in various processes in food and dairy industry, textile industry, laundry, etc. Because of its unique optimal growth temperature at cold conditions, it is widely used as alternative for normal mesophilic enzymes in many industrial processes. >> Category: Biotech Research

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