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Most Recent Agriculture Articles.
  • Gene Pyramiding in Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The development of molecular genetics and associated technology like MAS has led to the emergence of a new field in plant breeding-Gene pyramiding. Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression. Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to the development of genetic stocks and precise development of broad spectrum resistance capabilities. The success of gene pyramiding depends upon several critical factors, including the number of genes to be transferred, the distance between the target genes and flanking markers, the number of genotype selected in each breeding generation, the nature of germplasm etc. Innovative tools such as DNA chips, micro arrays, SNPs are making rapid strides, aiming towards assessing the gene functions through genome wide experimental approaches. The power and efficiency of genotyping are expected to improve in the coming decades. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Gas Chromatography and its Applications    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Chromatography, in one of its several forms, is the most commonly used procedure in contemporary chemical analysis and the first configuration of chromatography equipment to be produced in a single composite unit and made commercially available was the gas chromatograph. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Chromosomal Banding Patterns    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Depending upon the type of dye or fluorochrome or the chromosome pretreatment, there can be different types of banding patterns such as G-banding, Q-banding, C-banding, and R-banding. >> Category: Agriculture
  • G-Banding - Its Applications in Cytogenetics    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Chromosomes are G-banded to facilitate the identification of structural abnormalities. Slides are dehydrated, treated with the enzyme trypsin, and then stained. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Farming for the Globe    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Biotechnology in agriculture has two categories: (1)'improvements' to existing livestock and crops, and (2) development of entirely new uses for both animals and plants (Biopharming ) So called 'improvements', include 'input traits' such as crops with extra resistance to insect attack and improved weed control. These 'GM' or 'GMO' crops are modified food crops made more commercially viable, e.g. 'Roundup ready' soya, 'Starlite' corn, or 'Frost-tolerant' tomatoes. Consumers are worried about the safety of their food. Unfortunately we already have cases of compliance failures... By SUNIL KUMAR, S.V. and ANIL KUMAR, S.V. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) uses fluorescent molecules to vividly paint genes or chromosomes. This technique is particularly useful for gene mapping and for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. >> Category: Agriculture
  • In Situ Hybridization (ISH)    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    In Situ Hybridization (ISH) is a technique that allows for precise localization of a specific segment of nucleic acid within a histologic section. The underlying basis of ISH is that nucleic acids, if preserved adequately within a histologic specimen, can be detected through the application of a complementary strand of nucleic acid to which a reporter molecule is attached. Visualization of the reporter molecule allows localizing DNA or RNA sequences in a heterogeneous cell populations including tissue samples and environmental samples. Riboprobes also allow to localize and assess degree of gene expression. The technique is particularly useful in neuroscience. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Its Applications    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a revolutionary method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s. PCR is based on using the ability of DNA polymerase to synthesize new strand of DNA complementary to the offered template strand. Because DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide only onto a preexisting 3'-OH group, it needs a primer to which it can add the first nucleotide. This requirement makes it possi. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Electrophoresis - Its Venture Into Agricultural Biology    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Reuss (Moscow State University), who noticed that the application of a constant electric field caused clay particles dispersed in water to migrate. It is ultimately caused by the presence of a charged interface between the particle surface and the surrounding fluid. Electrophoresis of positively charged particles (cations) is called cataphoresis, while electrophoresis of negatively charged particles (anions) is called anaphoresis. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Farming in Crop Plants    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Molecular farming (also known as molecular pharming or biopharming) is the use of genetically engineered crops to produce compounds with therapeutic value. These crops will become biological factories used to generate drugs and other difficult or expensive products. The term pharming can be used to describe plant derived pharmaceuticals, but it is more commonly used for products engineered in animals. The issue of genetically modified crops has been around for a number of years and continues to be a controversial subject. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Breeding and Marker-Assisted Selection    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The process of developing new crop varieties requires many steps and can take almost 25 years. Now, however, applications of agricultural biotechnology have considerably shortened the time it takes to bring them to market. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biopesticides: Potential Eco Friendly Pest Management Programs    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Biopesticides include all types of agents and products derived from biotic sources, with potential for the control of phytophagous insects, plant diseases and pests of public health importance. These products have been used for pest and disease control for many centuries, but it has been only in recent years that greater attention has been directed toward the discovery and development of natural products, phytochemicals, microbial control agents, antagonistic agents, genetically modified organisms, hormones, pheromones, kairomones and other agents of biological origin. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Microarray Technology - Its Applications in Plant Breeding    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters). These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of fluorophore-, silver-, or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target. >> Category: Agriculture
  • RNA Interference - A Revolution in Crop Plants    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    RNA interference RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that inhibits gene expression at the stage of translation or by hindering the transcription of specific genes. RNAi targets include RNA from viruses and transposons (significant for some forms of innate immune response), and also plays a role in regulating development and genome maintenance. Small interfering RNA strands (siRNA) are key to the RNAi process, and have complementary nucleotide sequences to the targeted RNA strand. Specific RNAi pathway proteins are guided by the siRNA to the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA), where they 'cleave' the target, breaking it down into smaller portions that can no longer be translated into protein. A type of RNA transcribed from the genome itself, microRNA (miRNA), works in the same way. >> Category: Agriculture
  • DNA Chips For Fasten the Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    It is widely believed that thousands of genes and their products (i.e., RNA and proteins) in a given living organism function in a complicated and orchestrated way that creates the mystery of life. However, traditional methods in molecular biology generally work on a 'one gene in one experiment' basis, which means that the throughput is very limited and the 'whole picture' of gene function is hard to obtain. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Genetic Use Restriction Technology (GURT) in Crop Plants.    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    In nature, the expression of genes is regulated by several factors, which may be internal to the organism (e.g. proteins or other molecules resulting from the metabolism of the organism itself) or external (e.g. climatic factors). Modern biotechnology can also be used to regulate the expression of genes that are, for instance, not desirable at a certain stage of crop development. Methods that regulate gene expression are called Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs)[1]. GURTs are a specific domestication of the regulation of gene expression that occurs naturally in any organism. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Compost Tea: An Organic Additive For Plant Health    By: Sunita Gaind

    Compost tea is a liquid compost prepared by brewing the 'compost extract' (made by suspending stable and mature compost in water) with some microbial nutrient source such as sugars, proteins, oat meal, soybean meal, and/or humic acids at a constant temperature >> Category: Agriculture
  • Correlation and Path Analysis in Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)    By: Sharad V Pawar

    The phenotypic correlation coefficient and path coefficient analysis in F2 Generation of cross CNHPT- 1 x RHC-1488 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)showed a Significant positive association of seed cotton yield per plant with plant height, number of bolls per plant, average boll weight and ginning pert centage . path analysis indicated that number of bolls per plant and average boll weight had direct effect on seed cotton yield. Thus maximum emphasis for selection of better genotypes should be given to number bolls per plant and average boll weight and also to number of sympodia per plant and plant height. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Quality Testing of the Compost    By: surender singh

    Recently due to surge in area of organic farming, the demand for compost has increased significantly. Before 2006, due to lack of quality control measures, the market was flooded with poor quality compost and other organic manure. Finally in 2006, government has notified amendment in Fertilizer Control Order to include city compost and vermicompost in order to improve the quality of these inputs. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Effect of Deleterious Rhizosphere Microorganisms in Presence of HCN    By: Shruti agrawal

    The saprophytic microflora of the rhizosphere includes both deleterious and beneficial elements have the potential to influence the plant growth and yield, significantly. Their deleterious activities include alterations of the supply of water, ions and plant growth substances by changing root functions or limiting their growth. The beneficial bacteria affect plant growth positively by promoting the availability and uptake of mineral nutrients, provision of plant-growth substances as well as suppression of deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms. Deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms (DRMO) are the minor pathogenic rhizosphere microorganisms that affect plants by their metabolites without parasitizing plant tissue. These include deleterious rhizobacteria and rhizofungi. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Functional Foods    By: Sunita Gaind

    Functional foods may be whole, fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods. They are defined as any food or food ingredients that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients present in it. Traditional nutrients refer to vitamins and minerals. Functional foods don't differ from conventional food, in appearance and are consumed as part of usual diet >> Category: Agriculture
  • Mycoherbicides: Weeds-killing Fungi    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Many fungi of native origin are pathogenic to specific species of weeds. Such fungi are used to kill the weeds selectively and eliminate them from the area. These weeds-killing fungi are called mycoherbicides. eg. [i]Phytopthora palmivora [/i]is used to control the weed [i]Morrenia odorata.[/i] >> Category: Agriculture
  • Azolla: A Green Manure    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Azolla is a free floating freshwater fern. The plant body consists of crowded mass-like leaves on a branched fragile stem and submerged roots.The leaves are arranged in two alternate rows. The leaf is triangular or polygonal in shape. It has an upper lobe called aerial lobe and a lower lobe called submerged lobe. The ventral surface of the aerial lobe bears mucilage cavities harbouring the blue green algae, Anabaena azollae. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biosyntheis of Cytokinin    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Cytokinins are degradation products of DNA. They are made up of adenine nucleus and a furfural ring. This basic structure is known as 6- furfuryl aminopurine. Cytokinins stimulate cell division and enlargement of cells. The deficiency of cytokinins results in stunted growth in plants. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Mushroom Ingredients and Advantages - The Edible Fungi    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Mushrooms are the fast growing basidiomycetous fungi which produce fleshy fruit bodies. However, in general the word 'mushrooms' denotes fruit bodies of such fungi. The mushrooms may be button- like or fan- like or umbrella shaped. They are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. So they are consumed as energy rich food. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fungi as Single Cell Protein    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Dried biomass of certain fungi is consumed as a protein source in human food and animal feed. Such fungal biomass is termed fungal protein or mycoprotein. A few yeasts and moulds are being consumed as SCPs. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Hybridized Plants from Different Species Using Genetic Engineering    By: Smyl Smyl

    Crossing the Species Barrier in Plants - Genetic engineering has made it now possible to hybridise plants from different species >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fermentation Process in Popular Oriental Foods    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Article explains the process of fermentation in common oriental foods like Tempeh, Soy sauce, Natto and Miso. Mycoproteins, marketed in some foreign countries under the name Quorn, is essentially the mycelium of Fusarium graminerarum grown in continuous culture in a medium containing glucose, ammonium salts and a few growth factors. It is essential to reduce the level of RNA which is about 10% on mycelial dry weight to below the levels likely to lead to kidney- stone formation or gout. This can be achieved by mild heating prior to filtration which activates the RNAses and leads to RNA reduction. Such products contains 44% of protein and is high in 'fiber' contents. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Predaceous Fungi Types (Nematophagous Fungi)    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The predaceous fungi are also termed as Nematophagous fungi. They are of three main types on the basis of ecological habitat: a. Nematode trapping fungi, b. Endoparasitic fungi, c. egg parasites. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Development of Genetically Modified Rice and its Possible Hazards    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the key development of genetically modified rice, key concepts associated with its development, uses and possible hazards of using it. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Genetically Modified Salt Tolerant Wheat    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the latest development in the production of salt resistant wheat varieties through employing biotechnological methodologies and tools. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Blue Green Algae - Bio Fertilizer    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Blue-green algae are photoautotrophic, prokaryotic algae. They are free living creatures and also known as Cyanobacteria. It fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in moist soils. So BGA has been recommended as a biofertilizer. >> Category: Agriculture
  • BT Cotton, Merits and Expected Demerits    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of Bt. cotton in agricultural perspective. Bt. Cotton has been grown over large areas of the world. Firstly, it was grown in US and then was introduced to Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and China and then it was introduced all over the world, gradually. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Tissue Culture - A Significant Biotechnological Vista    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the technological aspects of tissue culture and highlights how it actually works. Tissue culture is a major technique in biotechnology regarding to the production of plants on a large scale with specific desirable traits among whole population with no variation. This technique involves culturing of a small piece of plant in aseptic in vitro conditions on a special culture media, comprising over nutrients and plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) into a full mature plant. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biotechnological Improvements in Wheat - Key Challenges and Hopes    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    Role of Biotechnology in wheat crop - The article focuses on the need, challenges and key advancements regarding the the biotechnological improvements in Wheat crop. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Coir Pith as Organic Soil Less Growing Medium    By: soumya T.V

    coir pith can be useful in soil less cultivation especially in areas facing different growing constraints such as water shortages, poor soil drainage and low fertility, soil salinity, pest and other ecological problems. In such areas coir pith plays the role of soil... By Soumya.T.V and Anil.K.R >> Category: Agriculture
  • Microbial Inoculants: an Approach to Sustainable Agriculture    By: Sunita Gaind

    Microbial inoculants are the formulations of beneficial living microorganisms that when added to soil, directly or indirectly, improve the nutrient availability to the host plant and promote plant growth. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biofilms: Their Role in Agriculture    By: Sunita Gaind

    Biofilms are nature's gift to man kind that can be exploited for their diverse application in the area of food, agriculture, medical, biotechnology and environmental settings. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Inducing Polyploidy For Creation of Better Species    By: Sandhya Anand

    The role of polyploidy in plant breeding and deciphering evolutionary history is undoubtedly established. The article gives a brief on various processed used in commercial induction of polyploidy for plant breeding. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Tests, Isolation and Chromatography of Glycosides - Part 3    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Information about chromatography of Glycosides, isolation by Stass Otto method and Doskotch method. The genins and glycosides are separated by column chromatography to get individual glycosides. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Glycosides Classification and Isolation Tests - Part 2    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    It is a semi quantitative method to find out the presence of sugars that is polysaccharides. We have to hydrolyze the drug and then chemical tests are carried out. The procedure for the isolation of glycosides also varies. The general method is Stass Otto method. >> Category: Agriculture
  • An Introduction to Glycosides - Part 1    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    These are organic compounds from plants and animal origin which an enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis fives one or more sugar moiety (glycone) along with non sugar moieties (aglycone). >> Category: Agriculture
  • WHO Guidelines For Herbal Drugs : Part 3    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Evaluation with reference to leaf contents, physiochemical and biological contents. >> Category: Agriculture
  • WHO Guidelines For Herbal Drugs : Part 2    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    The products of traditional system can not be manufactured without a license from state drug control authorities and they should contains ingredients which are mentioned in the recognized books as specified in the D&C act. Legal status and the the goal of WHO with botanical evaluation has been discussed in this section >> Category: Agriculture
  • WHO Guidelines For Herbal Drugs : Part 1    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Introduction to World Health Organization's guideline for herbal drugs and programmes of WHO. The United Nation convention states that the standardization is a critical importance for meeting the food, health and other needs of the growing world population. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Extraction Techniques for Herbal Drugs - Part 4    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    In 1985 Stahl demonstrated the wide applicability of Thin-layer chromatography. In outline the method consists of preparing, on a suitable glass plate, a thin layer of material, the solvent which may be either an adsorbent as used in column adsorption chromatography. Gas Liquid Chromatography was introduced by James and Martin in 1952, based on the suggestion of Martin and Synge Gas Chromatography separates volatile substances by percolation a gas stream over a stationary phase. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Extraction Techniques for Herbal Drugs - Part 3    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Saponins do not produce trouble some foams and unwanted oxidation changes are avoided, little preliminary purification of the plant extract is required. And the apparatus is simple to operate and clean. Partition chromatography was introduced by Martin and Synge in 1941 for the separation of acetylated amino acids and was first applied to the separation of alkaloids by Evans and Partridge in 1948. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Extraction Techniques for Herbal Drugs - Part 2    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    The commonly employed technique for removal of active substance from crude drug is called extraction. The choice of the plant material for extraction depends on its nature and the components required to be isolated. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Extraction Techniques for Herbal Drugs - Part 1    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Extraction can be defined as the removal of soluble materials from an insoluble residue, either liquid or solid, by treatment with a liquid solvent. The choice of extraction procedure depends on the nature of the plant material and the components to be isolated. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Davana Oil: Product Characteristics, Specifications and Applications - Part 1    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Physical and chemical description with uses. Davana Oil is one of the important essential oils. Essential oils obtained from higher plants are important raw materials used for manufacture of perfumes, flavours and cosmetics. Even with considerable development in production of synthetic perfumery and flavouring chemicals, essential oils continue to be the important raw materials for these industries throughout the world. >> Category: Agriculture

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