Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
A Friend Among Foes: LactobacillusBY: Vipin Chandra Kalia | Category: Environmental-Biotechnology | Submitted: 2016-11-07 00:44:15
Article Summary: "Lactobacillus strain in small numbers act as probiotics and prove helpful to human beings. It enables easy uptake of nutrients, consumption of milk, treating unhealthy conditions and activate the human immune system. Food Industries are the most worried of contamination of good with bad bacteria. In order to maintain quality and.."
A Friend Among Foes: Lactobacillus
Author: Vipin Chandra Kalia
Bacteria are perceived as something dangerous to interact with. It is true to some extent but not to its fullest limits. In fact, our body harbours a lot of bacteria and most of them are useful and important for proper functioning of our metabolisms. Human skin is harboured by bacteria belonging to Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, etc. Human gut carries more than 160 species of bacteria. Bacteriodetes, and Fermicutes dominate the gut microbiome and ensure good health. The group, which we all dread is constituted by bacteria belonging to: Vibrio, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Serratia, Klebsiella, Mycobacterium, Burkholderia, etc. The organisms which we love and hate are the ones belonging to the genus: Lactobacillus. Certain species of Lactobacillus are dangerous and cause infectious diseases, whereas there are others which we wish should stay within our body. Probiotic bacteria range from Lactobacillus reuteri , L. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus GG, L. casei, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, Streptococcus thermophiles, and a yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii.
Human gastrointestinal microbiota
It is represented by: L. gasseri, L. mali, L. crispatus, L. reuteri, L. delbrueckii, L. ruminis,L. animalis. and L. rhamnosus, The oral cavity of the human beings is dominated by: L. salivarius, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. crispatus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. vaginalis, and L. gasseri.
Animal gastrointestinal microbiota
Most common representative are: L. reuteri, and L. johnsonii.
The Friend: Lactobacillus acidophilus
A small population of L. acidophilus is needed for body. It is distributed in the intestine, mouth, urinary system and female genitals. It is important for the metabolism of lactose present in milk products through the enzyme lactase produced by this bacterium. It is well known as probiotic, which supports the body to absorb nutrients. The most effective usage of this bacterial species is to treat unhealthy conditions arising during diarrhea, asthamatic attacks, vaginal (yeast) infections, ulcers (caused by Helicobacter pylori), lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, common cold in adults, skin disorders (blisters, eczema and acne). The presence of Lactobacillus spp. such as L. crispatus, L. iners, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii in the vaginal region is very helpful in preventing the invasion of viruses and pathogenic bacteria. This bacterium is used as supplement in a few fermented foods: yogurt, pickles, kefir and soy products. Food Industries are always worried about contamination with harmful bacteria or the population of the probiotic bacteria getting declined. This obviously reduces the quality of the product and affects its sales. The consumers are also concerned about the fact that some of the products may not contain L. acidophilus at all or may have more of bad bacteria. Under these scenarios, the need is to verify the claims by identifying the bacteria.
Conventional and Spectroscopic methods
Morphological and biochemical assays are the first step towards bacterial identification. MALDI mass spectrometry of ribosomal proteins is a sophisticated process to identify L. plantarum and related species.
Molecular biology techniques
The rapid progress in molecular biology has made the identification more precise. The techniques employed for searching Lactobacillus include: PCR, RFLP, PFGE, RAPD, repetitive element PCR, etc. PCR of region between rrs gene and 23S rDNA has been quite effective in this respect. A large number of Lactobacillus strains could be identified using restriction enzymes (REs) for digesting: (i) rrs gene -ApaI, DdeI, HaeIII, HinfI, MspI, NcoI, NheI, NotI and SmaI, SphI, and (ii) the region between rrs gene and 23S rDNA - EcoRI, DraI, SfuI, VspI, SspI, and HincII. Other genes which assist in identifying Lactobacillus species –L. gasseri, L. johnsonii, L. plantarum, L. paraplantarum, L. pentosus, L. rhamnosus, L. taiwanensis, are: bsh, fbp, ftsZ, metRS, minD, mub, mutL, nrdD, pgm, pheS, polA, pyrG, recA, rpoA, and tuf. A major limitation with the use of rrs genes for identifying Lactobacillus is that, each genome harbours 4-9 copies of this gene. rrs gene copies from different Lactobacillus species show very high homology, which can lead to mis-interpretation. In a study involving 19 species of Lactobacillus (50 strains), the only organism, which could be distinguished on the basis of rrs was L. sanfranciscensis. Digestion of 268 copies ofrrs representing 50 strains with 10 different REs enabled identification of a 1-2 strains of the following species: L. acidophilus, L. sanfranciscensis, L. brevis, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. johnsonii, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. plantarum, L. amylovorus, L. keﬁranofaciens, L. buchneri, L. reuteri, L. sakei, L. ruminis, L. salivarius, and L. rhamnosus. In the various studies using different genes of Lactobacillus and their digestion with REs, there has been no consensus so far. The need is to look for biomarkers, which can be used by all researchers.
The consensus genes
A genome wide screening of 50 strains of Lactobacillus representing 19 species, revealed that around 9 genes were present in all of them:gyrB, pyrB, recA, dnaJ, cysS, dnaA, pyrG, polA, and dnaK. recA in combination with REs: BfuCI, RsaI, HpyCH4V, andCviAII was the most effective. The other genes whose digestion patterns can be exploited for identifying Lactobacillus were - ruvB, purA, dnaA, dnaJ, and gyrB with REs- BfuI, AluI, Tru9I, CviAI and TaqI.
Although, Lactobacillus strains acting as probiotics are unlikely to persist within the human gut for a long period. However, in light of the fact that these bacteria are excellent for activating the human immune system, they must be monitored for their health benefits. Their benefits during antibiotic treatment is important, because antibiotics may be indiscriminate it their action and may kill good bacteria as well. Probiotics support the growth of beneficial bacteria and thus help human being.
1. Agarwala M, Choudhury B, Yadav RNS (2014) Comparative study of antibiofilm activity of copper oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles against multidrug resistant biofilm forming uropathogens. Indian J Microbiol 54:365-368. doi:10.1007/s12088-014-0462-z
2. Alipiah NM, Shamsudin MN, Yusoff FM, Arshad A (2015) Membrane biosynthesis gene disruption in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as potential mechanism for reducing antibiotic resistance. Indian J Microbiol 54:41-49. doi:10.1007/s12088-014-0488-2
3. Ayyadurai S, Flaudrops C, Raoult D, Drancourt M (2010) Rapid identification and typing of Yersinia pestis and other Yersinia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. BMC Microbiol 10:285. doi:10.1186/1471-2180/10/285
4. Bhagat N, Virdi JS (2007) Distribution of virulence associated genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A correlates with clonal groups and not the source of isolation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 266:177-183. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00524.x
5. Bhushan A, Joshi J, Shankar P, Kushwah J, Raju SC, Purohit HJ, Kalia VC (2013) Development of genomic tools for the identification of certain Pseudomonas up to species level. Indian J Microbiol 53:253-263. doi: 10.1007/s12088-013-0412-1
6. Bhushan A, Mukherjee T, Joshi J, Shankar P, Kalia VC (2015) Insights into the origin of Clostridium botulinum strains: evolution of distinct restriction endonuclease sites in rrs (16S rRNA gene). Indian J Microbiol 55:140-150. doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0514-z
7. Gupta, V, Gulati P, Bhagat N, Dhar MS, Virdi JS (2015) Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in food: an overview. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 34:641-650.doi:10.1007/s10096-014-2276-7
8. Kalia VC (2015) Let's explore the latent features of genes to identify bacteria. J Mol Genet Med 9:e105. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.1000E105
9. Kalia VC, Kumar P (2015) Genome wide search for biomarkers to diagnose Yersinia infections. Indian J Microbiol 55:366-374. doi:10.1007/s12088-015-0552-6
10. Kalia VC, Kumar P, Kumar R, Mishra A, Koul S (2015) Genome wide analysis for rapid identification of Vibrio species. Indian J Microbiol 55:375-383. doi:10.1007/s12088-015-0553-5
11. Kekre A, Bhushan A, Kumar P, Kalia VC (2015) Genome wide analysis for searching novel markers to rapidly identify Clostridium strains. Indian J Microbiol 55:250257.doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0535-7
12. Kingston JJ, Radhika M, Roshini PT. Raksha MA, Murali HS, Batra HV (2010) Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria recovered from natural fermentation of beet root and carrot Kanji. Indian J Microbiol 50:292-298. doi: 10.1007/s12088-010-0022-0
13. Koul S, Kalia VC (2016) Comparative genomics reveals biomarkers to identify Lactobacillus species. Indian J Microbiol 56:253-263. doi:10.1007/s12088-016-0605-5
14. Koul S, Kumar P, Kalia VC (2015) A unique genome wide approach to search novel markers for rapid identification of bacterial pathogens. J Mol Genet Med 9:194. doi: 10.4172/1747-0862.1000194
15. Kumar R, Koul S, Kumar P, Kalia VC (2016) Searching biomarkers in the sequenced genomes of Staphylococcus for their rapid identification. Indian J Microbiol 56:64-71.doi:10.1007/s12088-016-0565-9
16. Liu Q, Wang S, Zhi J-F, Ming H, Teng D (2013) Efficient production of lactic acid from sweet sorghum juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus salivarius CGMCC 7.75. Indian J Microbiol 53:332-336. doi: 10.1007/s12088-013-0377-0
17. Mahale KN, Paranjape PS, Marathe NP, Dhotre DP, Chowdhury S, Shetty SA, Sharma A, Sharma K, Tuteja U, Batra HV, Shouche YS (2014) Draft genome sequences of Yersinia pestis strains from the 1994 plague epidemic of Surat and 2002 Shimla outbreak in India. Indian J Microbiol 54:480-482. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0475-7
18. Moroeanu VI, Vamanu E, Paun G, Neagu E, Ungureanu OR, Eremia SAV, Radu GL, Ionescu R, Pelinescu DR (2015) Probiotic strains influence on infant microbiota in the in vitro colonic fermentation model GIS1. Indian J Microbiol 55:423-429. doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0542-8
19. Prakash O, Pandey PK, Kulkarni GJ, Mahale KN, Shouche YS (2014) Technicalities and glitches of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Indian J Microiobiol 54:255-261. doi:10.1007/s12088-014-0461-0
20. Prakasham RS, Kumar BS, Kumar YS, Kumar KP (2014) Production and characterization of protein encapsulated silver nanoparticles by marine isolate Streptomyces parvulus SSNP11. Indian J Microbiol 54:329-336. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0452-1
21. Saxena A, Mukherjee M, Kumari R, Singh P, Lal R (2014) Synthetic biology in action: Developing a drug against MDR-TB. Indian J Microbiol 54:369-375. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0498-0
22. Shang Z, Wang H, Zhou S, Chu W (2014) Characterization of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs)-deficient clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Indian J Microbiol 54:158-162. doi:10.1007/s12088-014-0449-9
23. Song X, Wang Q, Xu X, Lin J, Wang X, Xue Y, Wu R, An Y (2016) Isolation and analysis of salt response of Lactobacillus plantarum FS5-5 from Dajiang. Indian J Microbiol 56: 451-460. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0588-2
24. Wang R, Fang S, Xiang S, Ling S, Yuan J, Wang S (2014) Generation and characterization of a scFv antibody against T3SS needle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Indian J Microbiol 54:143-150. doi: 10.1007/s12088-013-0428-6
25. Yu S, Peng Y, Chen W, Deng Y, Zheng Y (2014) Comparative genomic analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in probiotic Lactobacillus casei. Indian J Microbiol 54:293-301. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0456-x
26. Yu S, Peng Y, Zheng Y, Chen W (2015) Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into genomic diversification for niche expansion. Indian J Microbiol 55:102-107. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0496-2
About Author / Additional Info:
Researcher in Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics at CSIR-IGIB, Delhi.
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Gel Electrophoresis in Molecular Biology
• Disadvantages of Gene Therapy
• The Science and History of Genetics. How It Predicts the Genetic Code
• Comparative Advantages of Genic-SSRs Over Genomic SSRs for Crop Improvement
Latest Articles in "Environmental-Biotechnology" category:
• Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels
• Phytoremediation For Heavy Metals
• Biotechnology For a Clean Environment
• Methods of Wastewater Treatment
• Steps Involved in Nitrogen Cycle
• Biotechnology and Environment Protection
• Greenhouse Effect - Importance and Types
• Biological Degradation of Xenobiotics
• Phytoremediation - Greener Approach to Control Pollution
• Impact of Waste Management
• Waste Water Treatment Steps: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment
• Bioremediation - A Weapon to Tackle Oil Spills
• Phytoremediation - Use of green plants to remove pollutants
• The History of Botany | Botanists in Philippines
• Bioremediation by Cold Tolerant Microbes
• Cold Adaptation by Microorganisms
• Succession Stages of Xerosere
• The Climax Concept - Theories and Categories
• Succession Stages of Hydrosere
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us