Biotech Articles
Publish Your Articles Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS FORUMS PUBLISH ARTICLE
 
 

Steps Involved in Nitrogen Cycle

BY: Amna Adnan | Category: Environmental-Biotechnology | Submitted: 2010-08-20 22:25:57
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Nitrogen cycle is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into usable form and then its conversion back into atmospheric nitrogen. There are specific steps involved in this cycle..."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


Nitrogen Cycle:-
The absorption of nitrogen by plants from the soil, then consumption of plants by animals and when the animals and bacteria decompose them, returning back of nitrogen to the soil, the whole cycle is called as nitrogen cycle. In this cycle, nitrogen converts into its various chemical forms. Both biological and non biological methods are involved in this cycle.

Nitrogen is the most important component of the air. Among all the gases present in the air, nitrogen is most abundantly present. It is an odorless and colorless gas. It is the most important gas for all organisms on earth. Nitrogen is present in DNA, RNA and other proteins which are the building blocks of human body as well as all other organisms. Nitrogen present in the air is not in the usable form. There are certain bacteria which convert the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds so that it can be used by all living beings. There is a process for this purpose called as nitrogen cycle.

Steps involved in Nitrogen Cycle:-
To convert the atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen, five steps are involved.

1) Nitrogen fixation:-
Nitrogen present in the air is in the static form N2 that is it cannot be used by any organism until it is fixed by a process called nitrogen cycle. Through precipitation, nitrogen enters the soil and surface waters. When it settles down in the soil or water, it converts into two separate atoms by undergoing some changes which combine nitrogen with Hydrogen. The resulting compound is called as ammonium. Microorganisms present in the soil are responsible for carrying out this conversion. They are placed into three groups such as bacteria live in symbiotic relationship with legume plants, free aerobic bacteria and algae. All the microorganisms are beneficial for the soil. There are certain bonds between atmospheric nitrogen which make it inert. Bacteria and other microbes break these bonds with the help of an enzyme nitrogenase. When the bond breaks, nitrogen converts into two forms each combing with hydrogen and other chemicals. Sometimes light also plays an important role in breaking down the bond in atmospheric nitrogen and converts it into ammonia and nitrates. When there is no oxygen, only then the enzyme nitrogenase acts. Therefore, the microbes involved in nitrogen cycle live at places where there is no oxygen like root nodules. Rhizobium is the example.

2) Nitrification:-
It is a process of conversion of ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates. Special kinds of bacteria are involved in this process which occurs naturally in the environment. The bacteria nitrosomonas and nitrococcus convert the ammonia into nitrite and then nitrobacter convert the nitrites into nitrates by oxidizing NO2 to NO3. All these bacteria reside in soil and are called as nitrifying bacteria. When the bacteria convert nitrogen into usable form, they gain energy from this process and need oxygen so that the process can be carried out.

3) Assimilation:-
In this step, all the nitrites and nitrates produced in the whole nitrogen cycle are consumed by plants and animals and use it in their cellular processes. For example, NO3 and NH4 both are consumed by plants which take them through their roots into various plant parts to make proteins and other nucleic acids. When animals eat these plants, the nitrates and nitrites automatically transfer into their body.

4) Ammonification:-
When n animal or plant dies or hen they release wastes from their bodies, nitrogen is released in the organic form. This organic nitrogen is converted into ammonium by fungi and bacteria through the process Ammonification. The ammonia produced can be used in other biological processes of plants.

5) Denitrification:-
When the ammonia is converted back into inert nitrogen, the process is called as denitrification. Bacteria are involved in this process which takes place in anaerobic conditions. Places like deep soils and deep water are the places without oxygen. Pseudomonas and Clostridium are responsible for the step of denitrification. These bacteria can also live in the places where there is availability of oxygen.

About Author / Additional Info:


Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 18057



Additional Articles:
•   Biotechnology Boom - A Global Perspective

•   IPad vs Microsoft Surface Pro

•   Laboratory Data For Blood Test

•    Storing Umbilical Cord Blood: What is the Benefit?


Latest Articles in "Environmental-Biotechnology" category:
•   Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels

•   Phytoremediation For Heavy Metals

•   Biotechnology For a Clean Environment

•   Methods of Wastewater Treatment

•   Biotechnology and Environment Protection

•   Greenhouse Effect - Importance and Types

•   Biological Degradation of Xenobiotics

•   Phytoremediation - Greener Approach to Control Pollution

•   Impact of Waste Management

•   Waste Water Treatment Steps: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment

•   Bioremediation - A Weapon to Tackle Oil Spills

•   Phytoremediation - Use of green plants to remove pollutants

•   The History of Botany | Botanists in Philippines

•   Bioremediation by Cold Tolerant Microbes

•   Cold Adaptation by Microorganisms

•   Succession Stages of Xerosere

•   The Climax Concept - Theories and Categories

•   Succession Stages of Hydrosere

•   Bioextraction Mechanisms of Metals From Their Ores



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us