Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article
 
 
HOME FAQ TOP AUTHORS FORUMS PUBLISH ARTICLE
 
 

The Nature's Novel Ways To Genetically Modify Organisms

BY: Vipin Chandra Kalia | Category: Environmental-Biotechnology | Submitted: 2017-02-28 07:17:41
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Transmission of genetic material from parents to off springs is termed as vertical inheritance. In contrast, Nature allows transfer of genes among distantly related organisms and the pattern is called as Horizontal inheritance or Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT). HGT allows rapid evolution of organisms especially to confer the rec.."


Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article
     


The Nature's Novel Ways To Genetically Modify Organisms
Author: Vipin Chandra Kalia

Introduction

Evolution of living beings happens largely through modification and/or exchange of genetic material. In general, the transfer of genetic material occurs between parents and their offspring. The process is termed as vertical gene transfer i.e. vertical inheritance. In contrast, transfer of genetic material can also take place directly between two genomes, especially among distantly related organisms. This pattern of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) is called as horizontal inheritance.

The mechanisms of HGT

i. Conjugation : DNA is transferred from one organism to another through the exchange of plasmid.

ii. Transduction : In this case, bacteriophages assist in transmitting DNA.

iii. Transformation : Bacteria uptake DNA material available in its vicinity. These cells are called as competent cells as they can bind DNA to their surface and transport it through the cell envelope. DNA thus gets integrated into the recipient cell and operates through host machinery.

Detecting HGT

i. Phylogenetic discrepancy

Phylogenetic tree based on gene sequence of closely related organism have a high similarity and is indicated by high BootStrap Values (BV). BVs higher than 80-85% similarity index are indicative of vertical inheritance. Higher incongruencies in BV are potential cases of HGT. Such phylogenetic incongruencies may happen also because of events such as gene loss, gene duplication, gene conversion, recombinations or mosaics. To distinguish between apparent and real cases of HGT, we need to look for other evidences.

ii. Synteny

In general, the genes are arranged on the genetic material as operon or in the vicinity of each other depending upon their need to participate in a metabolic pathway or network. This gene order is maintained within closely related species. A comparison of the gene in question and the genes on either side can prove helpful in supporting HGT.

iii. GC content

The G+C content of a gene and that of the genome shows high congruency. However, in the case a gene has been transferred through HGT, its G+C content deviates significantly from that of the host genome.

iv. Codon Adaptation Index (CAI)

Once a gene gets integrated into the genome, it changes of the codons to match with the rest of genome. It is a measurement of the adaptation of the codon usage of a gene towards those used by highly expressed genes. The CAI values range on the scale from 0-1. A CAI value of a gene between 0.8 and 1.0 indicates higher proportion of the codons which are the most abundant.

Genetic significance of HGT

Basically, it allows a much rapid evolution. In Nature, eukaryotic chloroplast and mitochondria represent HGT, where bacteria genomes merged into eukaryotes and are the present day endosymbiotes. Protists represent a case of multiple endosymbioses. According to different estimates up to 60% of the prokaryotic genes have been influenced by HGT. Organisms withstand HGT, primarily if it confers beneficial functions to the host. It provides selective advantages to the host by enabling the functioning of novel metabolic abilities, which result in better survival. In Salmonella typhimurium, biosynthetic pathway involving cobalmin (Coenzyme B12) biosynthetic operon and degradative pathways for propanediol metabolism (pdu operon), represent a case which shows gain of functions through HGT. Tryptophan biosynthetic pathways of Brevibacterium lactofermentum and eneteric bacteria reflect loss and gain of genes. Compared to chance detection of HGT, whole genome sequences have also provided evidences of HGT – Archael and bacterial hyperthermophiles, pathogens such as Rickettsia and Chlamydia, which have genes indicative of their adaptation to the environment.

Extent of HGT

Microbes, which are parasitic in nature shed their genes and retain the moist important genes. As a consequence, they have much smaller genomes – Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia burgdoferi andMycoplasma genitalium, are have virtually no HGT events. Synechocystis spp. have acquired 17% of their genome through HGT. Other cases with high HGT cases are represented byEscherichia coli, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Bacillus subtilis.


Biotechnological significance of HGT

Most efforts to genetically modify organisms fail because we select a gene or genes of our interest and virtually force the host cell to accept it. Host cells may not accept the foreign genetic material and reject it as it is not compatible with its genetic machinery. Genes, which have undergone horizontal transfer and have been accepted and adapted by the host are much likely candidates for producing GMOs. This process opens up avenues for transforming non-producers or inefficient producers of a particular product to a producer status.

References:

  1. Ambardar S, Gupta R, Trakroo D, Lal R, Vakhlu J (2016) High throughput sequencing: An over view of sequencing. Indian J Microbiol 56:394-404. doi: 10.1007/s12088-008-0034-1
  2. Ang GY, Yu CY,Yong DA, Cheong YM, Yin W-F, Chan K-G (2016) Draft genome sequence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain NG_869 with penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin resistance determinants isolated from Malaysia. Indian J Microbiol 56:225-227. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0568-6
  3. Brambila-Tapia AJL, Pooot-Hernandez AC, Perez-Rueda E, Rodriguez-Vazquez K (2016) Identification of DNA methyltransferase genes in human pathogenic bacteria by comparative genomics. Indian J Microbiol 56:134-141. doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0562-4
  4. Jiang X, Jiao N (2016) Vertical distribution of bacterial communities in the Indian Ocean as revealed by analyses of 16S rRNA and nasA genes. Indian J Microbiol 56:309-317. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0585-5
  5. Kalia VC, Kumar R, Kumar P, Koul S (2016) A genome-wide profiling strategy as an aid for searching unique identification biomarkers for Streptococcus. Indian J Microbiol 56:46-58. doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0561-5
  6. Kalia VC, Lal S, Cheema S (2007) Insight in to the phylogeny of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis: Horizontal gene transfer. Gene 389: 19–26. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.010
  7. Koul S, Prakash J, Mishra A, Kalia VC (2016) Potential emergence of multi-quorum sensing inhibitor resistant (MQSIR) bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 56:1-18. doi: 10.1007/s12088-015-0568-0
  8. Kumari R, Singh P, Lal R (2016) Genetics and genomics of the genus Amycolatopsis. Indian J Microbiol 56:233-246. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0590-8
  9. Lal D, Lal R (2010) Evolution of mercuric reductase (merA) gene: a case of horizontal gene transfer. Microbiology 79:500–508. doi: 10.1134/S0026261710040120
  10. Lal S, Cheema S, Kalia VC (2008) Phylogeny vc genome reshuffling: horizontal gene transfer. Indian J Microbiol 48:228-242. doi: 10.1007/s12088-008-0034-1
  11. Porwal S, Singh R (2016) Cloning of merA gene from Methylotenera mobilis for mercury biotransformation. Indian J Microbiol 56:504-507. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0613-5
  12. Puri A, Rai A, Dhanaraj PS, Lal R, Patel DD, Kaicker A, Verma M (2016) An in silico approach for identification of the pathogenic species, Helicobacter pylori and its relatives. Indian J Microbiol 56:277-286. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0575-7
  13. Sankarasubramanian J, Vishnu US, Sridhar J, Gunasekaran P, Rajendhran J (2015) Pan-genome of Brucella species. Indian J Microbiol 55:88-101. doi:10.1007/s12088-014-0486-4
  14. Tantivitayakul P, Lapirattanakul J, Vichayanrat T, Muadchiengka T (2016) Antibiotic resistance patterns and related mobile genetic elements of Pneumococci and β-hemolytic Streptococci in Thai healthy children. Indian J Microbiol 56:417-425. doi: 10.1007/s12088-016-0607-3
  15. Wang M-y, Shao C, li J, Wang X-y, Wang S-b, Shao S-h (2015) Gene diversity of H. pylori cagPAI genes in patients with gastroduodenal diseases in a region at high risk of gastric cancer. Indian J Microbiol 55:118-120. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0501-9
  16. Yin X, Ma L, Pei X, Du P, Li C, Xie T, Yu L, Yu L, Wang Q (2015) Creation of functionally diverse chimerical a-Glucosidase enzymes by swapping homologous gene fragments retrieved from soil DNA. Indian J Microbiol 55:114-117. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0493-5
  17. Yu S, Peng Y, Zheng Y, Chen W (2015) Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into genomic diversification for niche expansion. Indian J Microbiol 55:102-107. doi: 10.1007/s12088-014-0496-2


About Author / Additional Info:
Researcher in Microbial Biotechnology and Genomics at CSIR-IGIB, Delhi.

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:



Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)


Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 287



Additional Articles:

•   Prostate Cancer: Risk of Cancer With Altered Genes

•   Celiac Disease: New Advancements in Detection and Therapy

•   Genomics and Its Applications in Agriculture

•   Bacillus Thuringiensis (insecticide) - Applications in Agricultural Industry




Latest Articles in "Environmental-Biotechnology" category:
•   Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels

•   Phytoremediation For Heavy Metals

•   Biotechnology For a Clean Environment

•   Methods of Wastewater Treatment

•   Steps Involved in Nitrogen Cycle

•   Biotechnology and Environment Protection

•   Greenhouse Effect - Importance and Types

•   Biological Degradation of Xenobiotics

•   Phytoremediation - Greener Approach to Control Pollution

•   Impact of Waste Management

•   Waste Water Treatment Steps: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment

•   Bioremediation - A Weapon to Tackle Oil Spills

•   Phytoremediation - Use of green plants to remove pollutants

•   The History of Botany | Botanists in Philippines

•   Bioremediation by Cold Tolerant Microbes

•   Cold Adaptation by Microorganisms

•   Succession Stages of Xerosere

•   The Climax Concept - Theories and Categories

•   Succession Stages of Hydrosere



Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.

ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  


  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us