Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Phylogenetics: Evolutionary Relationship Among SpeciesBY: Muniba Safdar | Category: Genetics | Submitted: 2010-07-11 09:00:22
Article Summary: "What is Phylogenetics? It is a field of biology which is used to find relationships among different organisms. Ancestrals are divided into two descendant species because closely related organisms are shown in near branches. If there is too much divergence between two species its mean they are not closely related..."
Before going into details we should know about these terms:
Phylogeny: It is related to evolution dealings in the evolutionary development of a species. It is represented by different ways vertical or slanted.
Phylogenesis: It refers to the evolutionary relationships among species.
Phylogenetics: It is determination or estimation of evolutionary relationships among groups of species, organisms and genes.
Phylogenetics is a field of biology which is used to find relationships among different organisms. This relationship is showing through a tree (used to model actual evolutionary relationship of organisms). Ancestral divided into two descendant species because closely related organisms are shown in near branches. If there is too much divergence between two species its mean they are not closely related.
The history of speciation (one species becomes divided into more than one new species) tells us how these species are related to each other. If they evolve to be separate species relatively recently then they are "closely relative" similarly if they evolve to be separate specie long above then they are "distant relatives". For example orthologs are genes in different species that evolved from common ancestor gene by speciation; they retain same function in the course of evolution.
Objective of Phylogenetics:
1. Determine the closest relative of organism we are interested in for example new strain of bacteria.
2. Predict protein-protein interactions.
3. Determine three dimensional structure of protein by phylogenetic analysis.
4. Estimate time of divergence.
5. Follow the changes in rapidly changing species for example flu a viral disease.
6. Predict a function of a gene through BLAST.
Phylogenetics is based on two types of data; morphological data (includes characters) and molecular data (includes DNA protein sequences). There are some benefits of molecular data when compared with morphological data. In molecular data sequences are evolve in a much more regular manner than morphological data. It can be used for any organism.
Terms related to phylogenetics:
Systematic: is the study of diversity of life on planet earth, both past and present and the relationship among living things through time.
Taxonomy: is classification of organism groups and change according to evolutionary history or similarity. Carl Gustor who is the father of taxonomy.
Mostly scientists prefer phylogenetics classification as it only names the clad (a type of tree which should have ancestors and descendants) and does not follow rank to hierarchy.
In the summary, phylogenetics analysis allows us to determine closest relationship among different organism. Evolutionary relationships can be constructed by similarity in sequences. We can find how these organisms evolve from each other. By drawing a tree we can get better idea about the related species. This field will provide us better way for the determination of evolutionary relationships among different groups of organism.
About Author / Additional Info:
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Bacillus Thuringiensis a Microbial Biopesticide Past and Future
• Naltrexone Drug in Treatment For Alcohol Dependence
• Genetics of Addiction
• Nanotechnology and its Application in Crop Improvement Programme
Latest Articles in "Genetics" category:
• The Science and History of Genetics. How It Predicts the Genetic Code
• Telomeres: Is It Responsible For Ageing and Cancer?
• Human Genetic Engineering,its Methods and Ethics
• Gene Mutation And Cancer
• DNA Technology Used in Forensics
• DNA Fingerprinting: Uses and Methods Involved
• Treatment of Genetic Diseases by Gene Therapy
• Human Intelligence and Genetics
• Ethical Issues Related to Human and Animal Cloning
• Mitochondrial DNA and Forensic
• DNA Footprinting and Gene Sequencing
• Biotechnology and Types of Cloning
• Designer Babies:Method and Ethical Issues
• Prenatal Diagnosis: Non-invasive and Invasive Techniques
• What are the Benefits of Genetic Engineering?
• The Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering in Humans
• Types of Genetic Disorders
• Bovine Somatotropin: A Growth Hormone
• Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us