Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Proteomics and Analysis of Protein SequenceBY: Muniba Safdar | Category: Genetics | Submitted: 2010-07-27 08:06:29
Article Summary: "Protein function depends on three dimensional arrangements of amino acids and three dimensional structures depend on length of amino acid,order of amino acid and types of amino acid present in a particular peptides. If we have a denovo protein and we want to find its function, through Bioinformatics Tools we can determine the se.."
Protein function depends on three dimensional arrangements of amino acids and three dimensional structures depend on:
1. Length of amino acid: more length of amino acid, more folds will be in a structure.
2. Order of amino acid: arrangement of amino acid determines that how amino acids are folded e.g. hydrophobic amino acids (outside the amino acid, present in a membrane).
3. Types of amino acid present in a particular peptide: types include alpha or beta which determines the structure of proteins.
If we have a denovo protein and we want to find its function, through Bioinformatics Tools we can determine the sequence of protein. We determine if two sequences are same its structure will be same and structure determines the function of protein.
Evolutionary relationship between proteins
On the basis of sequence similarities we make protein families. Mapping of evolutionary relationship means identifying protein family. We can determine protein through evolutionary history that which family protein belongs to.
Homolog: the protein having same ancestor.
Paralog: the protein that arises due to gene duplication within a genome, they evolve new functions, if they are related to the original one.
Ortholog: are genes in different species that evolved from common ancestor gene by speciation, they retain same function in the course of evolution.
Suppose we have an ancestor protein called "globin" (the oxygen carrying compound in red blood cells). Due to gene duplication ß-globin and myoglobin (paralogs) arisen during DNA replication. ß-globin and myoglobin are present in human and mouse evolved from same ancestor (orthologs).
• ß-globin of mouse is paralogs to myoglobin of human, but function slightly varies.
• ß-globin of mouse are orthologs to ß-globin of humans,i.e. same function due to conserved region.
Domains are functional unit of proteins. During evolution they are conserved. If two proteins have same function, they have same domains.
Suppose we have an enzyme TPA, Tissue Plasminogen Activator, it has four domains.
Domain 1: Fibronectin type II (FnII)
Interaction with fibrin (blood clotting agent)
Domain 2: Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
Promotes cell division.
Domain 3: Kringle
Interacts with fibrin.
Domain 4: Serine protease
It cleaves protein.
How these domains are arranges?
Due to rearrangement of exons sequence varies.
The FnII domain in tissue plasminogen activator is adjacent to EGF domain whereas in factor XII the FnII domain is sandwiched between two EGF domains.
In Urokinase (homeostatic protein) FnII domain does not exist, whereas it contains EGF and kringle domain.
If proteins are orthologs, it is easy to determine its function through databases for example, polar bear and human globin. But it is very difficult to determine function of proteins which are paralogs. We can conclude biological functions.
About Author / Additional Info:
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Proliferating Demand For Probiotics
• Surgery, Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Followed by Tumor Immunotherapy?
• R&D: The Poignant Loneliness--Brief Case Studies of 8 New Listed Drugs
• Bioaugmentation Technology For Cereal Waste Management
Latest Articles in "Genetics" category:
• The Science and History of Genetics. How It Predicts the Genetic Code
• Telomeres: Is It Responsible For Ageing and Cancer?
• Human Genetic Engineering,its Methods and Ethics
• Gene Mutation And Cancer
• DNA Technology Used in Forensics
• DNA Fingerprinting: Uses and Methods Involved
• Treatment of Genetic Diseases by Gene Therapy
• Human Intelligence and Genetics
• Ethical Issues Related to Human and Animal Cloning
• Mitochondrial DNA and Forensic
• DNA Footprinting and Gene Sequencing
• Biotechnology and Types of Cloning
• Designer Babies:Method and Ethical Issues
• Prenatal Diagnosis: Non-invasive and Invasive Techniques
• What are the Benefits of Genetic Engineering?
• The Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering in Humans
• Types of Genetic Disorders
• Bovine Somatotropin: A Growth Hormone
• Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us