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Bioethics of Human GeneticsBY: Muniba Safdar | Category: Issues | Submitted: 2010-07-13 12:10:47
Article Summary: "Research in the field of human genetics is very thorny but could be very informative and used to predict, change or select the useful trait..."
As the progress is increasing day by day in human genetics by examining the behavior of genes that how human genes manipulate with the environment. And mostly the research is focused on behavioral characteristics. Although research in the field of human genetics is very thorny but could be very informative and used to predict, change or select the useful trait.
There are basically two types of diseases
1. Genetics disease
It is genetic based. Some abnormalities may be associated with chromosome number; there may be change in DNA sequence, structure. For example sickle cell anemia a disease of RBC in this disease shape of cell is changed and this shape is due to change in DNA sequence, transversion in sixth codon.
2. Infectious disease
It is due to environmental factors. Mostly affected by viruses, bacteria, fungi. For example malaria, dengue fever and AID. Infectious diseases can be communicable or transmissible.
Before starting any project there must be some precautionary measures which must be followed. Now a day scientists are interested in doing research in human genetic and want to study how genes expresses ,what is the cause of genetic diseases etc. To do work on these genetic diseases there are some prerequisites which are given below.
Approval of Project
Suppose we want to do a project on "Genetic Diseases" in humans. Before starting this project must be approved from higher authorities. For this we have to approve that project from Institutional Review Board (IRB). It may be a researcher, doctor (they see what are the risks), religious representative (they see bioethics issue) or a lawyer. IRB will be approved our research protocol.
Measures of biosafety are same throughout the world. For example symptoms are same in every person e.g. HIV, AIDS.
Bioethics issues are also considered that will be different in different cultures. Religious representatives look forward all the issues.
For genetic disease we have to draw a pedigree to check mode of inheritance. Then we have to go for clinical tests (diagnosis) for this we have to write a consent which includes
• Introduction of disease
• Risk (diagnosis and sampling) in percentage e.g. x-rays, biopsy, blood test.
• Voluntarily based research
• Money for time compensation
• Privacy issues.
The crux of this discussion is that one may totally understand all the precautions so that care should be taken while doing projects in human genetics. The person who is being under investigation is allowed to voluntarily participate in this project.
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