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Nanostructure: Its Introduction and Various Forms

BY: Muniba Safdar | Category: Nanotechnology | Submitted: 2011-03-08 09:57:05
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Article Summary: "What are nanostructures? A nanostructure is defined as an object of molecular and microscopic or micrometer-sized structures. When we describe nanostructures it is obligatory to distinguish between the numbers of measurements on the nanoscale.A nanostructure is basically used when stating to magnetic technology..."


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Introduction:

A nanostructure is defined as an object of molecular (relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules or relating to simple or elementary organization) and microscopic or micrometer-sized structures. When we describe nanostructures it is obligatory to distinguish between the numbers of measurements on the nanoscale (relating to or occurring on a scale of nanometers). A nanostructure is basically used when stating to magnetic technology. There are different dimensions on the nanoscale level for example;

• Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension (i.e., only the thickness of the surface of an object is between 0.1 and 100 nm).

• Nanotubes (is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure. It may refer to: Carbon nanotube, Inorganic nanotube, DNA nanotube, Membrane nanotube) have two dimensions (i.e., the diameter of the tube is between 0.1 and 100 nm; its length could be much greater).

• Spherical nanoparticles (is a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties) have three dimensions (i.e., the particle is between 0.1 and 100 nm in each spatial dimension).

Various forms of nanostructures:

Nanostructures are divides into diverse forms. These diverse forms are described as follows;

• Nano-particle (is a particle is defined as a small object)

• Nano-fiber (are defined as fibers with diameters less than 1000 nm nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization and electro-spinning)

• Nano-flower (in chemistry, refers to a compound of certain elements that results in formations which in microscopic view resemble flowers or, in some cases, trees that are called nano-bouquets or nano-trees)

• Nano-fabrics (is an emerging nanotechnology that deals with building specialized fabrics)

• Nano-composite (is as a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm))

• Nano-cages (inorganic nano-cages are hollow porous gold nanoparticles ranging in size from 10 to over 150 nm. They are created by reacting silver nanoparticles with chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) in boiling water. Gold nano-cages absorb light in the near-infrared, where biological tissues absorb the least light. Because they are also biocompatible, gold nano-cages are promising as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography, which uses light scattering in a way analogous to ultrasound to produce in-vivo images of tissue with resolution approaching a few micrometres)

• Nano-foam (are a class of nanostructured, porous materials, foams, containing a significant population of pores with diameters less than 100 nm. Aerogels are one example of nano-foam)

• Nano-flake (is a perfect crystalline structure that also absorbs all light. Nano-flakes have the potential to convert up to 30 per cent of the solar energy into electricity, and that is twice the amount converted today)

• Nano-platelet (are new types of nanoparticles made from graphite. These nanoparticles consist of small stacks of graphene that are 1 to 15 nanometers thick, with diameters ranging from sub-micrometre to 100 micrometres)

• Nano-pillar (are metamaterials and metamaterials are defined as artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature)

• Nano-mesh (is a new inorganic nanostructured two-dimensional material, similar to graphene. It consists of a single layer of boron (B) and nitrogen (N) atoms, which forms by self-assembly a highly regular mesh)

• Nano-pin film (is an experimental material in nanotechnology. A droplet of water makes contact with the surface of this film and forms an almost perfect sphere with a contact angle of 178)

• Nano-shell (is a type of spherical nanoparticle consisting of a dielectric core which is covered by a thin metallic shell (usually gold))

• Nano-ring (s a small ring formed crystal. The first nano-ring made was a zinc oxide)

• Nano-rod (are one morphology of nanoscale objects. They may be synthesized from metals or semiconducting materials. Nano-rods are produced by direct chemical synthesis)
• Nano-tip

• Quantum dot ( is a semiconductor whose excitons are confined in all three spatial dimensions electronic characteristics are closely related to the size and shape of the individual crystal)

• Sculptured thin film (are nanostructured materials with unidirectionally varying properties that can be designed and realized in a controllable manner using variants of physical vapor deposition)

• Gradient Multi-Layer or GML nano-film (is an assembly of Quantum Dot layers with a built-in gradient of nanoparticle size, composition or density. Properties of such nanostructure are finding its applications in design of solar cells and energy storage devices. The GML nano-structure can be embedded in the organic material (polymer), or can include Quantum Dots made of two or more types of material)

• Quantum heterostructure (is a heterostructure in a substrate (usually a semiconductor material), where size restricts the movements of the charge carriers forcing them into a quantum confinement)

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