Biotech Articles
Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience

Request for an Author Account   |   Login   |   Submit Article

Genetic Engineering and its Methods

BY: Amna Adnan | Category: Others | Submitted: 2010-06-06 23:20:49
       No Photo
Article Summary: "Genetic engineering is a very vast field. It is used to make organisms free of diseases and various genetic changes can be made in the genome of the organism. Genetic engineering has some methods also..."

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

A technique of making changed in the genetic material of an organism using the scientific techniques is called genetic engineering. Due to these changes cells become able to perform different functions.

DNA is the basic unit of our body and it is the blueprint of the hereditary material which passes the information from parents to the offspring. It is the DNA which makes features of an individual and every individual has different features. The segments of the DNA molecule are called genes which enable the DNA to make features. Molecular cloning and transformation are the techniques which are used in genetic engineering. These techniques alter the structure of genes.

Genetic engineering has applied its techniques successfully in every field but the field of medicine and agriculture has taken advantage of genetic engineering most. For example the production of insulin for humans which is used to fight against the diabetes. Modified bacteria were used in making of human insulin. This genetically modified insulin when inserted in the body; it fulfills the need for the insulin. Genetic engineering has succeeded in making the genetically modified mice which are also called as oncomouse or cancer mouse to do research for the disease of cancer. In agriculture, genetic engineering techniques have developed genetically modified crops with more nutrition.

Methods of Genetic Engineering:-
There are three main methods through which genetic engineering techniques work:

The Plasmid Method:-
Plasmid method is the most commonly used method of altering the genes of any microorganism. Bacterial genetic variations take place through this method. Plasmid method occurs in the following way:

1) A plasmid which is a small piece of DNA molecule is used in this method. It is inserted in a container which is already containing the restriction enzymes. These enzymes work together to cut the plasmids into small pieces.

2) Using the restriction enzymes, these cut pieces of plasmids are inserted into the bacteria due to which sticky ends are produced.

3) These sticky ends allow the complementary sequences of DNA molecules to come together and fuse with each other making a ring of DNA molecule. Now some other enzymes are used to make those ringed DNA molecules more stable in the container. After the stability of DNA molecules, they are put in safety to use for further processes.

4) A culture of live bacteria is prepared in which these well formed plasmids or DNA molecules are placed. These plasmids will enter into the bacterial cell and will start expressing themselves as soon as they will enter the cell. In this expression, the plasmids will be able to synthesize new proteins or antibiotic resistance genes. These antibiotic resistance genes distinguish the plasmid bacteria from the non plasmid bacteria.

Scientists use these bacteria for various purposes like drug delivery or other purposes. Some people oppose this method as they say that there are chances that the bacteria might express their own genes and those genes do not have the useful results. Through this method oil spills are also cleaned by using such bacteria.

The vector method:-
Vector method is quiet different from the plasmid method in the sense that in vectors method, vectors of viruses are used which are inserted in the host cell. This method of genetic engineering is better than the plasmid method because it gives good results in the host when the desired features are tested in the host. In this method, when the viral vector is inserted in the host cell, it will start replicating itself by using the genetic information of the host cell.

The Biolistic method:-
This method is also called as gene gun method. This method is totally different from the other two methods because it is related to the engineering of the plants. The required genes are inserted in the gun which is made up of tungsten and are triggered in the host cells. This is how the plants show traits and characteristics for which the DNA was triggered in them.

About Author / Additional Info:

Search this site & forums
Share this article with friends:

Share with Facebook Share with Linkedin Share with Twitter Share with Pinterest Email this article

More Social Bookmarks (Digg etc..)

Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)

Comment By Comment

Leave a Comment   |   Article Views: 39805

Additional Articles:

•   Emerging Green Technologies for Processing Oil-seeds

•   Different Delivery Systems of Trichoderma spp.

•   Pickling Process - Preserving Foods

•   Role of Belowground Organisms in Maintaining Soil Health

Latest Articles in "Others" category:
•   Biotechnology, Its Techniques and Human Health

•   Techniques of Biotechnology

•   Nanomedicine and Disease Treatment

•   Biotechnology and Livestock

•   Bioinformatics: Combination of Biotechnology and Information Technology

•   Gene Patenting and Its Uses

•   Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Technique of Biotechnology

•   Pharmacogenomics: Benefits and Barriers

•   Human Genome Project: Ethical and Legal Issues

•   Plant and Animal Tissue Culture: Procedure, Benefits and Limitations

•   Therapeutics and Biotechnology

•   Biotechnology: A Revolutionary Field and Biotech Challenges

•   Recombinant DNA Technology

•   Environment and Biotechnology

•   Biosensors: Role in Biotechnology

•   Human Insulin and Recombinant DNA Technology

•   Biotechnology and Its Applications

•   Types of Gene Mutations - Diseases Caused By Gene Mutation

•   Applications of Enzymes in Biotechnology

Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
Copyright © 2010 - Do not copy articles from this website.

Agriculture Bioinformatics Applications Biotech Products Biotech Research
Biology Careers College/Edu DNA Environmental Biotech
Genetics Healthcare Industry News Issues Nanotechnology
Others Stem Cells Press Release Toxicology  

  |   Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS   |   Submission Guidelines   |   Contact Us