Publish Your Research Online
Get Recognition - International Audience
Request for an Author Account | Login | Submit Article
|HOME||FAQ||TOP AUTHORS||FORUMS||PUBLISH ARTICLE|
Xenobiotic and Interaction with EcosystemBY: Shanky Bhat | Category: Others | Submitted: 2013-01-28 12:44:53
Article Summary: "Xenobiotics are synthesized chemically organic compounds of which most do not occur in nature (Schlegel, 1995). Xenobiotics can be defined as the compounds that are foreign to a living organism. Xenobiotics include pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and so on. Most of which are substituted hydrocarbons, phenyl car.."
XENOBIOTIC INTERACTION WITH ECOSYSTEM
Xenobiotics are synthesized chemically organic compounds of which most do not occur in nature (Schlegel, 1995). Xenobiotics can be defined as the compounds that are foreign to a living organism. Xenobiotics include pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and so on. Most of which are substituted hydrocarbons, phenyl carbonates, and similar compounds. Some of these substances of which great quantities are applied to the crops and soil are very recalcitrant and are degraded very slowly or not at all.
With the introduction of xenobiotic in the environment the xenobiotic can go for following processes:
A) Biotransformation- it can be from hydrolases, enzyme induction, and mixed function oxidization.
B) It can change the biochemistry- like stress proteins, DNA, RNA, key enzymes, change in energy rates, interfere with metabolic systems.
C) Physiology and behavior- changes in chromosome and reproductive success, alter behavior, it causes tumors and teratogenic effects.
D) Change in community parameters- changes in community structure diversity, productivity, energy transfer, and succession and population density.
E) Change in population dynamics- change in productivity, reproduction, genetic and competition changes lead to ecosystem effect.
Biotic environmental fate
The interaction of a xenobiotic at the site of action in an organism is often 'molecular happen stance' i.e. xenobiotic mimic compounds which are naturally found in species that they affect - hormone mimics
• The storage of a compound in fatty tissue of an animal
• Result of food chain / trophic levels
• Metabolic processes, mainly by environmental bacteria, that alter the structure and toxicity of a compound
• Breakdown of a xenobiotic to CO2 and water
Examination of the fate of xenobiotics in biological systems is a natural outgrowth of man's curiosity about its environment and how it can affect society.
Following are points to consider under risk management of Xenobiotics:
A) Consider risk assessments in light of social, economic, and political needs and values.
B) Weigh costs and benefits, given both scientific and nonscientific concerns.
C) Decide whether or not to reduce or eliminate risk. Risk management take in consideration the opinion, information from private citizens, nonprofit interest groups, industry and manufacturing groups and hence managing the risk from the toxicants.
It covers the following aspects:
A) Analyzes risks quantitatively via preparing scientific data from hazard identification, extent of exposure and toxicity characterization, identify effects and associated uncertainties.
B) Measures and compares risks involved in different activities or substances
C) Helps identify and prioritize serious risks
D) Helps determine threats posed to humans, wildlife, ecosystems
• Dose-response analysis or other tests of toxicity
• Assessing likely exposure to the hazard (concentration, time, frequency)
About Author / Additional Info:
Comments on this article: (0 comments so far)
• Advances in Antihypertensive Medication
• Celiac Disease: New Advancements in Detection and Therapy
• Environmental Pollution - List of Most Common Pollutants
• Ginseng - An Overview of its Health Profile
Latest Articles in "Others" category:
• Biotechnology, Its Techniques and Human Health
• Techniques of Biotechnology
• Nanomedicine and Disease Treatment
• Biotechnology and Livestock
• Bioinformatics: Combination of Biotechnology and Information Technology
• Gene Patenting and Its Uses
• Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Technique of Biotechnology
• Pharmacogenomics: Benefits and Barriers
• Human Genome Project: Ethical and Legal Issues
• Plant and Animal Tissue Culture: Procedure, Benefits and Limitations
• Therapeutics and Biotechnology
• Biotechnology: A Revolutionary Field and Biotech Challenges
• Recombinant DNA Technology
• Environment and Biotechnology
• Biosensors: Role in Biotechnology
• Human Insulin and Recombinant DNA Technology
• Biotechnology and Its Applications
• Genetic Engineering and its Methods
• Types of Gene Mutations - Diseases Caused By Gene Mutation
Important Disclaimer: All articles on this website are for general information only and is not a professional or experts advice. We do not own any responsibility for correctness or authenticity of the information presented in this article, or any loss or injury resulting from it. We do not endorse these articles, we are neither affiliated with the authors of these articles nor responsible for their content. Please see our disclaimer section for complete terms.
Copyright © 2010 biotecharticles.com - Do not copy articles from this website.
ARTICLE CATEGORIES :
| Disclaimer/Privacy/TOS | Submission Guidelines | Contact Us