Adoption Toward Farm Technologies
Authors: Dr. MAYUR M. PRAJAPATI, Dr. M. R. PRAJAPATI, Dr. K. A. THAKKAR
Adoption has generally been defined as a decision to make full use of a new idea or innovation at the best course of action available. The adoption is mental process through which an individual passes, first from hearing about an innovation to its final adoption. Adoption of innovation requires a decision by an individual. He must by using new idea and in most cases decide to cease using idea that the innovation replaces. Adoption implies continued use of innovation in the future.
Social scientists have suggested that whole process of adoption does not occur at a time. It is a gradual process, which can be explained into five stages. Although, more or fewer stages may exist, at the present time, there seems to be five main stages which are : (1) awareness, (2) interest, (3) evaluation, (4) trial and (5) adoption. Many researches on adoption of new practices or ideas by individual or group have shown that adoption of a new practice is not a snap decision. It is a mental process on the part of individual over a period of time. Adoption of a farm practice has been conceptualized as a process involving number of above successive stages suggested by the sociologists. One of the important contributions made by adoption research is the concept of sequential nature of adoption. Sociologists have come out with number of conceptual proportions regarding the stages of adoption related to farm innovations. Whereas, in a social system all individuals do not adopt an innovation at the same time. Research indicates that the diffusion of new idea/practices usually requires several years. In the first year, a few farmers adopt it; then in a short span of time, a large numbers try it; and finally the remaining members of society accept it. On the basis of time required for adoption of new practices, farmers are classified into different adopter categories, which are as under:
[a] Innovators (2.50 %), Early adopters (13.50 %), [c] Early majority (34.00 %), [d] Late majority (34.00 %), and [e] Laggards (16.00 %).
Acceptance of agricultural technology is not a unit but a complex process involving sequence and thought of action. The action of an individual farmer is influenced by many factors on the part of farmers as well as on the part of technology. Human action is dependent upon many factors. As conceptualized by Pearson (1954), the action takes place in a situation consisting of social, economic, psychological and cultural factors operative in given time. What action an actor performs depends on how he orients to and evaluates the given situation, i.e., the alternatives available and expected gratification to be derived. The orientation and evaluation process in turn depend upon the personal characteristics and cultural systems. To be precise, the action process is dependent upon personal, biological, social, economical, communication and psychological factors involved in the situation. The farmer's decision for adoption is influenced not only by economical, but also by socio-personal, psychological, communication and situational factors and hence, the rate of adoption which is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by the farmers of social system is different from individual to individual. The adoption is the end result of any development programme. Hence it was felt necessary to study adoption of recommended farm technologies by the farmers.
Pearson, T. (1954). Essays in Sociological Theory. The free Press, Glencoe : p. 275.
About Author / Additional Info:
Completed Ph.D. Agriculture in the discipline of Extension Education from Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Dist. Banaskantha, Gujarat & Currently working as Assistant Professor at School of Agriculture, Rai Uniiversity, Ahmedabad.