Biofertilizers are the substances which make use of microorganisms to fertile the soil. These fertilizers are not harmful to crops or other plants like the chemical fertilizers. They are actually taken from the animal wastes along with the microbial mixtures. Microorganisms are used to increase the level of nutrients in the plants. They let the plants grow in a healthy environment. They are also environment friendly and do not cause the pollution of any sort. Use of biofertilizers in the soil, makes the plants healthy as well as protect them from getting any diseases.
Types of Biofertilizers:-
This type of biofertilizers helps the agriculturists to determine the nitrogen level in the soil. Nitrogen is a necessary component which is used for the growth of the plant. Plants need a limited amount of nitrogen for their growth. The type of the crops also determines the level f nitrogen. Some crops need more nitrogen for their growth while some crops need fewer amounts. The type of the soil also determines that which type of biofertilizers is needed for this crop. Fr example, Azotobacteria is used for the non legume crops; Rhizobium is needed for the legume crops. Similarly blue green algae are needed to grow rice while Acetobacter is used to grow sugarcane. It means almost all the crops need different types of biofertilizers depending on their needs.
Phosphorus biofertilizers are used to determine the phosphorus level in the soil. The need of phosphorus for the plant growth is also limited. Phosphorus biofertilizers make the soil get the required amount of phosphorus. It is not necessary that a particular phosphorus biofertilizers is used for a particular type of crop. They can be used for any types of the crops for example; Acetobacter, Rhizobium and other biofertilizers can use phosphotika for any crop type.
Compost biofertilizers are those which make use of the animal dung to enrich the soil with useful microorganisms and nutrients. To convert the animals waste into a biofertilizers, the microorganisms like abcteria undergo biological processes and help in breaking down the waste. Cellulytic fungal culture and Azetobacter cultures can be used for the compost biofertilizers.
Advantages of biofertilizers:-
1) They help to get high yield of crops by making the soil rich with nutrients and useful microorganisms necessary for the growth of the plants.
2) Biofertilizers have replaced the chemical fertilizers as chemical fertilizers are not beneficial for the plants. They decrease the growth of the plants and make the environment polluted by releasing harmful chemicals.
3) Plant growth can be increased if biofertilizers are used, because they contain natural components which do not harm the plants but do the vice versa.
4) If the soil will be free of chemicals, it will retain its fertility which will be beneficial for the plants as well as the environment, because plants will be protected from getting any diseases and environment will be free of pollutants.
5) Biofertilizers destroy those harmful components from the soil which cause diseases in the plants. Plants can also be protected against drought and other strict conditions by using biofertilizers.
6) Biofertilizers are not costly and even poor farmers can make use of them.
7) They are environment friendly and protect the environment against pollutants.
Applications of biofertilizers to crop:-
Seedling root dip:-
This method is applied to the rice crop. A bed of water is spread on the land where the crop has to grow. The seedlings of rice are planted in the water and are kept there for eight to ten hours.
In this method, the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are mixed together in the water. Then seeds are dipped in this mixture. After the applications of this paste to the seeds, seeds are dried. After they dry out, they have to be sown as soon as possible before they get damaged by harmful microorganisms.
All the biofertilizers along with the compost fertilizers are mixed together. They are kept for one night. Then the next day this mixture is spread on the soil where seeds have to be sown.
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