Malnutrition is one of the worlds most serious, but least addressed health problems. Deficiency, arising from nutrients, minerals and proteins poses serious human health problems. More than half the world's population affected by malnutrition (FAO, 2014a).
Nearly 30 % Indian population, mostly (women and children) are malnourished. Breeders are usually concerned with multiple traits related to yield and quality. Quality means to use of economic plant parts in relation to suitable for body health. Quality is not a single trait; in facts, it is a conglomerate of traits. Quality includes flavor, colour, size, shape, aroma, smell, nutrient level, low toxic contents and traits that permit food safety regulation or no harmful effect. Nutritional quality means the optimum concentration and bioavailability of the nutrition in foods.
Bioavailability of nutrient means nutrient concentration food, food prosseing, absorption varies person to person, these factors combined with diet and presence of antinutritional factors. Available research has demonstrated that quality enrich traits are available within the genomes of these major stable crops that could allow for substantial improvement in quality without negatively impacting yield. These are aimed at highlighting conventional breeding methods and non-conventional methods in crop improvement. Plant breeding aimed at developing cultivars with improved genetic constitutional to serve diverse human needs. These activities depend on breeding goals, genetic sources, breeding vision to apply breeding approaches. Rapid & reliable methods for screening techniques as indispensable tools in breeding programs of nutritional quality. Given these actions and procedures found in conventional and non-conventional breeding programme.
Conventional approaches include screening of germplasms, mutagenesis, hybridization, interspecific hybridization. The traditional breeding methods can be complemented with genetic engineering (biotechnology approach) such as transgenic, overexpression and suppression of gene of interest to release new genotype of crops. Current intervention to eliminate these deficiencies viz. Trangenics technology produced a type of rice that accumulates beta-carotene in rice grains and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A. Maize gene psy (phytoene synthase) combitaion with the Erwinia uredovora gene crtI (carotene desaturase) subtitue two dalfodil genes enhanced level of accumulation beta carotene in golden rice 2 instead of golden rice 1. Golden rice 2 contains 37 mg per gram of carotenoid, which 84% are beta carotene (Paine et al., 2005). Trangenics tomatoes have been produced, which contain antisenese construct of gene encoding polygalacturarase (Bruening & Lyons, 2000). Miraculin, a new type of alternative sweetener, in trangenics tomato plants. Miraculin, itself, not a sweet protein, but it is able to turn a sour taste into a sweet taste (Sun et al., 2007). Next-generation protein rich potato developed by tuber specific expression of a seed protein, AmA1 (Amaranth Albumin 1). Trangenics potato reveled increase total protein contents include essential amino acids with total biomass production due increase photosynthetic activity. (Chakraborty et al., 2010).
The enrichment traits appear to be stable across various soil types and climate environments. Further research required to determine if enhance traits in stable foods can significantly improve the nutritional status of people suffering from malnutrition (Welch et al., 2000). Still can't be complacent, there are many nutrition challenges viz. 161 Million children under five years are stunted, 51 Million children under five years are wasted, 99 Million children under five years are underweight, 500 Million adults are obese, 2 Billion people get insufficient nutrients, 1.4 Billion people are overweightage (FAO, 2014b). Now the important part of plant breeding required increase productivity in non stable food crops and still be needed research for change available nutritional foods to make healthier food with discover alternative nutritive food sources.
• Anonymous 2014, The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2). FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy.
• Bruening, G. & Lyons, J.M., 2000. The case of the FLAVR SAVR tomato. California Agriculture, 54, 4: 6-7.
• Chakraborty, S., Chakraborty, N., Agrawal, L., Ghosh, S., Narula, K., Shekhar, S., Naik, P.S., Pande, P.C., Chakrborti, S.K. & Datta, A., 2010. Next-generation protein-rich potato expressing the seed protein gene AmA1 is a result of proteome rebalancing in transgenic tuber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United., 107, 41: 17533-8.
• Jacqueline A Paine, Catherine A Shipton, Sunandha Chaggar, Rhian M Howells, Mike J Kennedy, Gareth Vernon, Susan Y Wright, Edward Hinchliffe, Jessica L Adams, Aron L Silverstone & Rachel Drake, 2005. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology, 23:482 - 487.
• Sun, H.J., Kataoka, H., Yano, M., Ezura, H., 2007. Genetically stable expression of functional miraculin, a new type of alternative sweetener, in transgenic tomato plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 5, 6: 768-77.
• Welch, R. M. and Graham R. D. 2002. Breeding crops for enhanced micronutrient content. Springer Link, 245, 1: 205-214
About Author / Additional Info:
I am a 2nd year student at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agriculture Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India, pursuing Masters in Plant breeding & Genetics.