Classes of Genetic Markers and it’s applications in crop breeding improvement

Authors: Dr. Rajesh C. Jeeterwal*1 and Anju Nehra2
1Young Professsional- II, ICAR-AICRP on Pearl Millet, ARS, Mandor, Jodhpur 342304 (Rajasthan)
2Ph. D. Scholar, SKN Agriculture College, (SKN Agriculture University, Jobner), Jaipur 303329 (Rajasthan)
*Corresponding author email: jeeterwal.raj.pbg@gmail.com


Molecular markers could be appropriate choice to study and preserve the range in any germplasm. Molecular markers have diverse applications in crop breeding improvement, mainly in the areas of genetic diversification and varietal identification, sequence tagged analysis, biotic stress diagnostics, pedigree determination, hybrid detection, sex differentiation and MAS. The sequence of nucleotides in polymer of an individual is exclusive and so determines its identity. The ultimate distinction between people lies in the ester sequence of their polymer. These can be wont to diagnose the presence of the sequence while not having to attend for sequence effect to be seen.

Introduction

Linkage maps of the many plant species were restricted in size until the advent of molecular mapping. Primaraly its difficult to construct linkage maps. This inability occurred as a result of the harmful effects of the expression of all mutant phenotypes within the single stock. as a result of normal deoxyribonucleic acid or protein molecules are used to score the genetic material, molecular markers are phenotypically neutral. This may be a major advantage as compared to the traditional markers. The three most common forms of markers used these days are RFLP, RAPD and isozymes. Of the three marker types, RFLPs are used extensively. Random Fregment Length Polymorphism markers have many benefits as compared with the RAPD and isozyme markers: 1) they're co-dominant and unaffected by the environment; 2) deoxyribonucleic acid is used for the analysis; and 3) several markers is mapped in a population that's not stressed by the results of phenotypical mutations. The primary disadvantage to RAPD markers is that they're dominant and don't allow the scoring of heterozygous individuals. The weakness of isozyme markers is that every source of the proteins that are being scored may not be expressed within the same tissue. Thus many samplings of the genetic population ought to be created.






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About Author / Additional Info:
I am currently worked as Young Professionals-II (Plant Breeding and Genetics) at ICAR- AICRP on Pearl Millet, Jodhpur.