Authors: Sharwan Lal Jat**, Swaroop Singh*, Nem Raj Sunda** and Arjun Lal Choudhary***
* Professor. Division of Entomology R.A.R.I Durgapura SKNAU, Jobner Rajasthan - 303329
**Ph.D. Scholars, Dept. of Entomology SKNAU, Jobner Rajasthan - 303329
***M.sc. Scholars, Dept. of Entomology SKNAU, Jobner Rajasthan - 303329
Brinjal or egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered as one of the important vegetable crop due to its nutritive value consisting of minerals like iron, phosphorous, calcium and vitamins like A, B, and C. The crop is attacked by a number of insect pests from seedling to fruiting stage affecting its growth and productivity. Out of several insect pests, brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. is one of the most injurious to brinjal crop. The crop is attacked by more than insect pests and infests the crop from seedling to harvest stage. The shoot and fruit borer (Leucinode orbonalis G.), Epilachna Beetle (Epilachna vigintioctopunctata), leafhopper ( Amrasca biguttula biguttula), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci).
Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinode orbonalis G.) Shoot and fruit borer cause a serious damage to the fruits leading to severe reduction in the yield. The damage to the fruits starts soon after transplanting and continues till harvest of the fruits. The adult female lays eggs on the ventral surface of the leaves, flower buds and on young fruits. Short pinkish larva of the pest initially bore into the terminal shoots resulting in withering and drying of the shoot. In the later stage, it bores into the young fruits by making holes and feeds inside which makes the fruits unfit for consumption.
Epilachna Beetle (Epilachna vigintioctopunctata) The yellowish coloured grubs and adults feed voraciously on the leaves and tender parts of the plant and often cause serious damage when they appear in numbers. Heavy infestation result in leaf skeletonnization. Pupation takes place on the plant itself.
Jassids (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves. The infested leaf curl upward along the margins, which may turn yellowish and show, burnt up patches. They also transmit by mycoplasma disease like little leaf and virus disease like mosaic. Fruit setting is adversely affected by the infestation
- Use nylon net barrier for raising nurseries to eliminate pest incidence coming from nursery to main field.
- Cut and destroy wilted insect damaged shoot tips during pre-flowering and flowering period at weekly intervals.
- Collect and destroy adult beetles.
- Grown Intercropping brinjal + coriander.
- Regularly destruction of larvae in swollen damaged flower buds and fruits after each harvest is compulsory.
- Grow all round barrier crops like maize.
- Use of water traps loaded with pheromone @ 30 /Acre can reduce the pest incidence to minimum level.
- Spray Bacillus thuringiensis 250LE formulation (1%) at weekly interval followed by release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 2, 50,000 /ha (50,000 / release -5 times at weekly intervals, starting from flowering).
- Spraying the crops with Carbaryl (0.1%) or Cypermethrin (0.5ml/litter of water) at fortnightly intervals starting from 35 days after transplanting controls the pest. Best results are obtained when all the affected fruits are removed before spraying.
- Some tolerant varieties Punjab Barsati, Punjab Chamkila, Pusa Purple Round Kalyanpur-2
- Soil application of neem cake 250 kg/ha followed by sprays of NSPE 4% or neem soap 1% at 10 days interval.
- Spray of systemic insecticides like Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2ml/l or Imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.3ml/l or Acephate 75 SP (1 g/l) at pre-flowering stage.
- Shoot & fruit borer, Leucinode orbonalis if crosses ETL (5 % infestation), spray cypermethrin 25 EC @ 200 g a.i/ha or spinosad 45SC @ 0.3 ml/lit or emamectin benzoate 25WG @ 0.4 gm/lit is effective against
Dhaliwal,G.S. and Arora, R. (2001) Integrated pest management books Kalyani Publishers New Delhi ISBN 978-81-272-3192-4.
Atwal,A.S. and Dhaliwal, G.S.(1976) Agricultural pests of south Asia and their management books Kalyani Publishers New Delhi ISBN 978-93-272-5072-5.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am completed in M.sc Ag. Entomology and continues in Ph.D Entomology By SKNAU ,JOBNER JAIPUR