Biotechnology as a science uses biological principles in practice and is building on basis of achievements in physiology, biochemistry and bioengineering.
Along with traditional methods of plant breeding, thorough bred breeding and mating and the methods of biotechnology have become an important lever for improvement of farm animals. Using its methods: the transplantation of embryos, cell engineering, genetic engineering, chromosome engineering can speed up genetic progress in a few times. We consider each of these methods separately.
Cellular engineering arose when there was a method of somatic hybridization, where the cultivation of the two lines of cancer cells there was appearing a new type of cells similar to them. New cells had a high rate of reproduction without the addition of medium proteins - growth factors. By type of growth and morphological characteristics of these cells differed from their parent's cells. Nucleus of new cells has the total number of parental chromosomes and marker genes. Cells fuse when they are damaged membrane.
Increase the efficiency of merger succeeded with the help of Japanese virus. Later, instead of the virus was used Sendai virus. The merger is possible between different cells of one organism and cells of totally different species.
Growth factors are necessary for the cultivation of certain cells, the following; insulin, transferrin, ethanol-min. hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, prostaglandin, phosphor-ethanolamine, prolactin, pituitary extract and others. But at the confluence of cells of different species of animals are always going on chromosome elimination of one of them. The obtained hybrid cells have been targets for genetic analysis. The use of chemicals such as polyethylene glycol promotes fusion of cells of different species of animals and even plant cells and animals. Cells, which have merged, first form a single large cell with two different kernels. In addition, if one of the nuclei begins DNA synthesis, it is stimulated in both the nucleus. In general, both cores share the same time, their chromosomes are mixed, and two derived cells have chromosomes of both the original species. They can be hybrids of mice and rats, cats and dogs, humans and mice.
Using cell engineering in animal cells can be cultivated plenty of time, but, unlike plants, of which it is impossible to get an adult organism.
The possibility of merging of animal cells was the impetus of cellular technology in the field of infectious diseases to obtain monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity, homogeneous on the molecular properties that are used for diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
One of the most promising methods for immunochemical diagnosis of viral, bacterial and other infections of farm animals is an immunoassay test.
Currently used methods by which it is possible merger of lymphocytes with cancer cells. The resulting hydride rapidly divides, forming a clone of cancer cells that synthesize one type of antibody, inherent in the original cells. This clone makes it possible to get as many antibodies against a specific type of protein (antigen).
Mating the chimeric animals with normal, in most cases they were sterile. As if the heterozygotes or hybrids in the progeny of chimeric animals are split, which violated valuable genetic combinations? Great practical interest is the connection to the phenotype of animals for one generation (by obtaining chimeras), evidence of milk and meat productivity, which are antagonists.
With the merger of embryos with cultural or wild species can preserve the gene pool of outstanding animals whose embryos are incapable of independent development. Many species of the animals can be created by parthenogenesis (the development of individuals from the egg without sperm), and transplantation with a biologically high-grade embryos, parthenogenesis cells of early embryos.
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