Management Practices for Buffalo
Authors: A.S.Gawali*, N. S. Chavan, S. S. Kharade
Email :a.s.gawali@kkwagh.edu.in
(Assistant Professor, K. K.Wagh College of Agricultural biotechnology, Nashik.)


Article Summary
Developing of national livestock sector depends on the possession, reservation,and livestock resource both those improved or unimproved breed. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is one of ruminantia livestock which has special advantages to improve such as that it can survive with the low quality food, and its existence has been united with the social life

Buffalo production of the traditional management applied by farmers has many advantages as the traditional farming tool, meat, organic fertilizer, leather, and social-culture equipment.

That why its important to carried out management practices on the farm.

Breeding management
Problems in breeding
1. Seasonal breeders (from oct. to Feb.)
2. Silent heat
3. Repeat Breeding
4. Short reproductive cycle i.e. 21 days
5. Highly affected during summer

Management ---- Seasonal breeding
- Heat detection
- Protection from thermal stress
- Adequate & balanced ration
- Insemination at optimal time with good quality semen

Management of silent heat
- Managemental attention
- Protection from direct solar radiations
- Parading of teaser bull
- Painting of Lugol's Iodine
- Use of estrogen & progesterone in Anoestrus & sub-estrus cow
- Use of prostaglandin

Repeat Breeding
Cow or buffalo having normal oestrus, oestrus cycle & reproductive tract failed to conceive

REASONS:-
failure of fertilisation, anovulation & delayed ovulation, early or latent embryonic mortalitis, poor breeding & management techniqes

MANAGEMENT:-
1.Antibiotic treatment
2. Daily examination of repeaters
3. Improved feeding & management
4. Providing hygienic surrounding at the time of Calving
5. Ascepting precautions at the time of insemination
6. Educating farmers on detection of heat

Health Management
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Problems:
1. Calf mortality

Reasons-
Antibodies are not transferable from dam to fetus through placental membrane
Meteorological influences
Certain diseases (Pneumonia, Enteritis)
Defective management

2. Susceptibility to diseases (FMD, BQ, HS)

3. Heat stress
Less tolerance to high temperature
Black skin colour

Management (Health)
Housing is one of the important factor
Feeding colostrum

Colostrum-milk secreted by udder immediately after parturition and for following 3-5 days
Composition of colostrum->20% protein, a little more fat,10-100 times more vit.A,3 times more vit.D
Function-natural purgative for the calf, cleaning from intestine accumulated faecal matter

Feeding antibiotics under the guidance of veterinary doctor

Feeding milk replacer-
Milk replacer-
A feed material for young animals which has many of the nutritive characteristics of milk, is fed in fluid form, & contains an appreciable level of non fat dry milk solids

Constituents- (How it prepared?)
Wheat, fish meal, linseed meal, milk (DM), coconut oil, linseed oil, citric acid, molasses, mineral mixture, butyric acid, antibiotic mix., Rovimix A, B2,D3

Wallowing-
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It means rolling or floundering in mud or in water
Regulate body temperature & control parasites
Also sprinkling of cool water on body, in shed, providing cool water for drinking helps to regulate body temperature

Nutritional management
Buffaloes are more efficient converters of low-grade roughages
Nutritional requirement of buffalo-

The metabolic energy requirement:
(a) for maintenance ranges from 97.8 to 188.8 Kcal/W0.75 kg in dry & lactating buffaloes
(b) for milk production ranges from 1171 to 1863 Kcal/Kg 4%FCM

The DCP requirement:
(a) for maintenance in dry & lactating animals ranges from 1.28 to 3.48 g/kg W0.75 kg
(b) for milk production ranges from 126.6 to 166.34g/100 g of protein secreted in milk
The dry matter intake of buffalo is 85-90 g /kg metabolic body size and it is lesser than that of cattle




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