MODERN CULTIVATION OF SOYBEAN
Authors: 1Sheeshpal Choudhary, 2Mahendra Choudhary and 3Chouthu Ram Hakla
1&2Ph.D. Scholar Department of Agronomy, SKNAU, Jobner, Jaipur, Rajasthan- 303329, India
3Ph.D. Scholar Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, SKNAU, Jobner, Jaipur, Rajasthan- 303329, India
Email of corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Importance of soybean
Also called as wonder crop. It contains 18-25% (Av. 20.5%) oil, 40-43% protein. It is the richest, cheapest easiest source of best quality of protein & fat. Earlier it is a pulse crop but now a days placed as oilseed crop. It is fixing atmospheric nitrogen and fertility builder crop. Oilcake is used for preparation of biscuits, protein rich bread, confectionary & industrial uses.
Climate: - Grows well in warm & moist climate but it is drought & frost susceptible. When temperature is low, oil production is also low & vice-versa at seed formation. Require 600-650 mm well distributed rainfall for better yield and seed quality. Water logging sensitive due to anaerobic conditions. It is a short day plant in photoperiodic response. It requires low relative humidity.
Soil :- It requires neutral soils, pH is 6.5-7.5. It can ’t tolerate salinity but acidity deadly harmful so add lime. Sandy loam or deep loam soils are best with good in organic matter, well pulverized aerated & no stubbles.
Varieties: - For Rajasthan-
T-49 : Late maturing 115-120 days, yellow grain & yield is 15-20 q ha -1.
Gaurav : Mature in 104-106 days. Yield is 20-25 q ha-1
Moneta : Short duration variety, mature in 80-85 days & quite tolerant to major insect-pests.
PK-472: Mature in 105-110 days, tolerant to pod shattering, resistantto yellow mosaic virus and bacterial pustules. Yield potential is 30-35 q ha -1.
MACS-58: Short duration variety, mature in 90-95 days. Resistant to bacterial pustules & yield is 30-35 q ha-1.
Other varieties: Lee, Bragg, Clark-63 are all American varieties & about 30-35 q ha -1 yield.
Sowing time: -
In Kharif- June end to15th July.
In Rabi – October to November.
In Summer- Mid February to Mid March.
Seed rate and Seed treatment: - Seed rate for early sowing verities – 70-80 kg/h and for late sowing verities - 100-125 kg/ ha is required. To reduce fungal attack the seed should be treated with fungicides like Thiram /Captan @ 3 g/kg of seed. For biological fixation of atmospheric N2, seed should be treated with suitable strain of Rhizobium japonicum.
Manure & Fertilisers: - Soyabean being a legume crop has the ability to supply their own nitrogen by Rhizobium japonicum . Starter dose – 25: 80: 50 kg/ha NPK is given if not inoculates than 50 kg N/ha given in 2 splits.
In Rajasthan IIIA zone – 20: 40 kg/ha N : P is required.
Intercultivation: - Weeds reduce 40-45% reduction in yield so two hand weeding at 15 & 30-35 DAS is required. Nitrofen (Tok E-25) - 1.5-2.0 kg a.i. per ha as pre-emergence in 800 lit. of water or Fluchloralin – 1.0-1.25 kg a.i. per ha as pre plant incorporation in 800 lit. water.
Irrigation: - In kharif, irrigation is usually not required but in long dry spell of drought, irrigation is required at germination, flowering, podding & pod filling stage. During summer & winter season, it would require assured irrigation & avoid waterlogging.
Harvesting :- 90-145 days as per maturity of variety when leaf turn yellow & drops & only pods remain on the stalk. Delay cause shattering. Harvesting is done by sickles.
Yield: - Average yield is 20-25 q ha-1.Improved varieties of soyabean yields up to 30-35 q ha-1.
Diseases and their management:-
Charcoal rot:- Caused by fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (syn. Macrophomina phaseolina). It is a disease of roots and lower stem. Reddish-black to brown necrotic lesions develop at the crown. On removing the bark of infected roots, black charcoal-like powder of microsclerotia is visible.
Management: - It is effectively managed through summer ploughing, crop rotation, balanced fertilization and seed treatment with Thirum @ 1.5 g + Carbendazim @ 1.5 g/kg seed before sowing.
Rhizoctonia aerial blight: - Caused by fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Symptoms generally appear on leaves, stem and pods. Infected leaves are water-soaked brown to reddish brown and later on become tan or black.
Management: - By summer ploughing, crop rotation, burning of infected crop residues, proper drainage. Seed treatment with Thirum @ 3-4 g/kg. Spray Mancozeb (0.25 %) on foliage and second spray after 15-20 days of first spray. Grow tolerant varieties: PK 416, PS 564, PS 1024 & PS 1042.
Anthracnose: - Caused by fungus Colletotrichumtruncatum. Managed through use of pathogen-free seed, seed treatment with Thirum @ 1.5 g + Carbendazim @ 1.5 g/kg seed.
Rust:- Caused by PhakopsorapachyrhiziSyd. Yield losses in the range of 40 to 80 % in the affected crop. Presence of loose brown powder due to pustules rupture is a characteristics symptom.
Managed by grow resistant varieties like Ankur, PK 327, PK 1029, Alankar Shilajit etc. Spray Mancozeb 75 WP or Difolitan @ 2.5 kg/ha in 1000 lit. of water.
Yellow mosaic: - Caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus & transmits by white fly ( Bemisia tabaci).
Managed by use of yellow mosaic resistant varieties like PK 416, PK 472, PS 564, PS 1042 etc. & foliar spray of Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1.2 lit./ha or Methyl demeton @ 1.25 lit./ha .
Insect-pest and their management: -
Bihar hairy caterpillar (Spilosomaobliqua): - Controlled by 1-2 spray of Quinolphos 25 EC @ 1.25 lit./ha or Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1.25 lit./ha.
Girdle beetle (
Obereopsis brevis ):- Controlled by soil application of Phorate 10 G (1.0 kg a.i./ha) at sowing & foliar spray of Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g/ha.
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