"Quarantine"- means a restriction, imposed by duly constituted authorities, whereby the production, movement or existence of plants, plant materials, animals, animal products or any other article or material or the normal activity of persons is brought under regulation, or in order that the introduction or spread of a pest may be prevented or limited or in order that a pest already introduced may be controlled or eradicated, thereby reducing or avoiding losses that would otherwise occur through damage done by the pest or through a continuing of control measures (FAO).

"Contaminate" - means infestation or infection by plant pests or having in association with it unauthorized plant materials or soil adhering to or with the articles;

"Infected" means a condition caused by a plant pest;

"Infested" means the presence of plant pest other than plant disease pathogen.

"Permit" means a written authorization issued by the Minister or the Director for the movement into or through the country of any plant, plant pest, soil, or other regulated article;

"Phytosanitary Certificate" means a form substantially in the format of the Model Certificate of the International Plant Protection Convention (held in Rome on 6th December 1951) for signature of an appropriate Officer of the Plant Quarantine Service of the country of origin where the plants were grown, attesting the plant or plants to which it refers is free of agricultural pests and substantially free from other injurious plant pests.

The New Plant Quarantine Order- 2003

• The development of the new Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Order, 2003 (referred to hereafter as "the new Order") reflects the primary plant quarantine concerns of the Government of India. These are:
     - to prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pests that are destructive to the country by regulating the import of plants and plant products through adequate policy and statutory measures
     - to support India's agricultural exports through credible export certification
     - to facilitate safe global trade in agriculture by assisting producers, exporters and importers and by providing technically comprehensive and credible phytosanitary certification.

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF INDIAN PLANT QUARANTINE STRUCTURE

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Plant Quarantine Regulatory Measures in India

• The Destructive Insects & Pests Act, 1914'
• The Import Regulation of cotton in to India,1972
• New Seed Policy, formulated in 1988
• The Plants, Foods & Seeds (Regulation of Import into India Order), 1989

Implementation of Plant Quarantine

• The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) established by the Government of each member country has the responsibility to discharge the functions specified by IPPC. The Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage (DPPQS), headed by the Plant Protection Adviser to the Government of India, under the administrative control of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi is the NPPO contact person in India and is responsible for:
• Issuance of Phyto-sanitary Certificates confirming that exporters have met the importing countries requirements.
• Manage surveillance for pest outbreaks and control of pests.
• Conduct inspection and if necessary disinfestations of treated consignments of plants and plant products.
• Ensure Phyto-sanitary security of consignments from certification until export.
• Establish and protect pest free areas/Areas of Low Pest Prevalence.
• Undertake Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for development of import Phyto-sanitary measures.

IPPC and International Trade

• The (IPPC) has always played an important role in international trade. The Convention has encouraged countries to ensure through phyto-sanitary certification that their exports are not the means for introducing new pests to their trading partners.
• Likewise, importing countries strive to ensure that measures they have in place for protection are technically justified. The WTO seeks harmonization of Phyto-sanitary measures by its members, the SPS Agreement states that WTO members must base their Phyto-sanitary measures on international standards developed by the International Plant Protection Convention..
• The IPPC makes provision for trade in a protection agreement; the SPS Agreement makes provision for plant protection in a trade agreement.

Other Organisations Involved in Implementation of Plant

Quarantine Regulations

The other organisations involved in the implementation of Plant Quarantine Regulations other than DPPQS are as under:

1. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi for import of Germplasm/ Transgenic/ Genetically Modified Organisms and crops covered in Schedule-V and VI meant for research purpose.

2. Crop specific Research Institutes of Indian Council of Agricultural
Research (ICAR).

3. State Agricultural and Horticultural Departments (SAHD).

4. Head of Plant Pathology Division of State Agricultural Universities (SAU).

About Author / Additional Info:
I AM Ph D SCHOLAR @ INDIAN AGRICULTURE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, NEW DELHI