Authors: A.S.Gawali*, S.A.Belge, P.T.Yeole
(Assistant Professor, K. K.Wagh College of Agricultural biotechnology, Nashik.)
Farm managers are employed to manage and carry out duties associated with the day-to-day and long-term management of large commercial farms. It is their responsibility to ensure that the farm runs efficiently and profitably. Their day-to-day activities will depend on the type of farm being managed:
• Livestock (animals)
• Mixed (animals and crops).
• Planning the running of the farm
• Setting budgets and production targets
• Buying and selling animals or produce
• Keeping records of livestock and/or crops and financial records
• Recruiting, training and supervising staff
• On smaller farms, doing practical work such as looking after livestock, driving tractors and other machinery, spreading fertiliser and harvesting crops.
An advance plan requires for four pillars of successful animal enterprise viz: breeding, feeding, management ,disease control & marketing needs to be drawn.
a) Purchase of animal
1) Before purchasing the animal planning is required for ‘Breed Selection’ & ‘ Requirements of animals’ ( for milk production or for breeding purpose).
2) Quantity of purchase of animals depends upon availability of space, labors, capital etc.
- In planning of feeding following points to be consider:-
- 1. Cultivation of green fodder crop to supply green fodder to the animals throughout the year.
- 2. Preservation of surplus forage.
- 3.Procurement & storage of concentrate & other feed materials.
c) BREEDING Future of enterprise totally depends on the breeding planning of animals which includes :- Both female & male selected for breeding should be superior in characters such as high milk production, fat %, disease resistance, and resistance to adverse climatic condition, etc. Which should be heritable to their offspring which is a member of next generation in the farm herd.
d) MANAGEMENT & DISEASE CONTROL
- For control of diseases following planning is necessary :-
- Good housing with enough ventilation & sunlight.
- Disinfection of houses is done regularly by using 1 to 2% phenol solution.
- Provision of easy digestible & nutritious food, clean water.
- Separate attendant, housing, feeding, watering etc. should be provided for diseased & healthy animals.
- Personal vaccination against common infectious diseases.
- After death of diseased animals burry it deep with lime.
- For getting optimum price of main produce & by produce in marketing planning is necessary:-
- Main produce milk ; well developed ‘Bull’ for farm work.
- By produce well decomposed cow dung ( F.Y.M.), culled animals .
It is the managers concern to know the norms & quantum of unit of work that a laborer is expected to finished in certain unit of time, on this basis work has to be assigned, a practical man know this more precisely . The manager should probe, the psyche of his subordinates deeply to find out their temperature & aptitudes so that he can allot to each person the type of work he likes .
- Direction of manager to his labours should be specific & simple .
- A good manager does not do much of bossing, he delegate some of his power to his coordinates .
- Manager should supervises & inspires his coordinates. It some one has done a good job .
- It someone has failed before firing him the manager should find out how he has failed .
COORDINATION & CONTROL
- Many problems can be solved easily if manager keeps good communication between him & staff co working with him .
- Any bad worker or non cooperative link can put entire operation out of gear .
- Coordination should be achieved among all the workers of the enterprise working in different section like feeding feed supply, milk & milk handling , breeding operation, calf care, disease control etc. by the manager .
- Like a road map, a good record tells you where you are going in your business.
- Only with accurate records can the animal or manger judge his production, keep an account of the amount feed consumed for production & determine whether his production is profitable or not .
- It also provide adequate information for breeding & genetic improvement of stock .
- Kinds of records kept :- 1. Farm diary 2. Breeding records 3. Production records 4. Feeding records 5. Labour records 6. Health records 7. Pedigree & herd records 8. Complete enterprise record
- Own manager should have necessary skill & technical knowledge .
- He should consider following points before appointing himself as a manager . 1. Does he possess necessary technical knowledge training ? 2. Has be sufficient knowledge of accountancy & book keeping ? 3. Is he having sufficient experience with fuel operated machine etc. It is very relevant to remember that, “ Enterprise never fails, It is the man in manager who fails .”
PRINCIPLES OF FARM MANAGEMENT
- Definition of management :- “ Management is an art & science combining ideas, facilities, processing materials & labour to produce market worthwhile product successfully .”
- Principles of farm management :- 1.Principles of Breeding 2. Principles of Feeding 3. Principles of Heeding 4.Principles of weeding
PRINCIPLES OF BREEDING :
- Both male & female selected for breeding should be with superior genetic material.
- Breeding of farm animals involves following steps:-
- Evaluation of their production potential.
- Selection of suitable individuals ( both male & female ).
- Mating them in planned manner.
- Economic traits in the farm animals like milk production , gaining in body weight carcass quality are controlled by large number of gene i.e. polygene. ( polygene have small effect individually but their overall action is great.)
- To develop superior progeny for next generation , it is necessary to select genetically superior parent & their mating at proper time when both are capable of fertilization.
PRINCIPELS OF FEEDING :
- Scientific feeding is an important factor in successful livestock forming, assist account 70% expenses of the total cost of maintenance.
- Animal should be fed with balanced ration for exploiting their genetic potential to tallest extent.
- Ration should provide nutrients for maintenance of body & production of milk , meat etc.
- Nutrient requirement is worked out in term of DCP & TDN. which is provided through roughages & concentrates & dry matter requirement should be calculated @ 2.5-3.5% of body weight to satisfy the hunger of animals.
PRINCIPLES OF HEEDING :
- HEEDING :- “ Heeding means keeping the animal comfortable by providing good health .”
- HEALTH :- “According to definition of WHO health is state of complete physical , mental , & social well being .”
- For maintenance of health :-
- Provide proper management , housing & hygienic condition.
- Protect animal from harsh environmental condition.
- For proper heeding of animal livestock owner should get against with the modern methods of care & management of animals both in health & diseases.
PRINCIPLES OF WEEDING :
- WEEDING :- “ Weeding is defined as culling ( disposal ) of uneconomic animals through castration so that they are prevented form reproducing.”
- Reasons of removal of cows percentage from herds
- Low production 33.49%
- Dairy purpose 23.39%
- Udder trouble 11.47%
- Sterility 08.26%
- Abortions 07.34%
- Death 05.04%
- Old age 02.7%
- Other causes 08.26%
About Author / Additional Info:
I am currently working as Asssistant professor at KKwagh college of agril biotech, Sarswatinagar, Nashik