Author: ANURAG PATEL
Vaugh School of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SHUATS, Allahabad (U.P.) - 211007
Machine of tractor operated fertilizer applicator for application of granular urea at the root zone of wheat plants. It also includes suitable measurement techniques for recording various parameters related to performance evaluation of machine under the laboratory and field condition. The scope for introduction in the country because of its useful to meet the growing needs of the farmers with high level of production and productivity and increase the use efficiency of urea. Top dressing of Nitrogen to the wheat crops results emission of nitrogen gas to the atmosphere and placement is not in the proper root zone thus to reduce the loss of nitrogen in to atmosphere and increased the utilization efficiency, research work is need for the placement of nitrogen in to the root zone of plants to avoid the nitrogen emission to the atmosphere and increase the use efficiency of nitrogen. For maximum efficiency of applied fertilizer, it is essential to deliver nutrients to the root zone of plants at a rate which is sufficient for maximum uptake while avoiding fixation with clay particles. Machine component are main frame, fertilizer box, fertilizer metering system, shank furrow openers and ground drive wheel.
Table: Fertilizer applicator machine component and materials.
|Hitching system||MS flat|
|Fertilizer box||Angle iron, MS sheet|
|Fertilizer adjustment lever||Mild steel|
|Fertilizer metering system||Die casted aluminum(BIS: 6816 part 1973)|
|Fertilizer metering drive mechanism||Mild steel, Chain, Gear|
|Fertilizer tube||Transparent plastic pipe|
|Furrow opener||Mild steel, MS pipe, MS plate, MS sheet|
|Ground wheel||Mild steel, MS flats, MS rod|
- Diameter of the ground drive wheel was measured to calculate circumference of wheel.
- Area covered in one revolution of the drive wheel was calculated.
- The calibration was done for 20 revolution of the drive wheel; therefore, the area delivered in 20 revolution of the wheel was calculated from the area covered by 20 revolution of drive wheel.
- The rate control adjustment for the fertilizer was set for maximum dropping.
- The fertilizer dropped in polythene bags attached with each furrow opener was weighed separately and total weight of fertilizer was calculated.
The uniformity is proper distribution pattern of fertilizer particles from the outlet in longitudinal directionof travel of machine. It was calculated by using equation.
Cu =100 (1- ΣX/ m n)
Cu = Coefficient of uniformity in percent,
m = mean value of all observations g,
n = total number of observations,
X = numerical deviation of individual observation from the mean application rate g,
Calibration of fertilizer applicator
The fertilizer applicator was calibrated for application of granular urea at the rate of 60 kg/ha and 130 kg/ha in the laboratory to provide the 30 and 60 kg N/ha 20 revolutions of ground drive wheel gave. The fertilizer delivered in each tube of furrow opener was collected and weighed for three replications.
The machine was tested in the field for application of granular urea on wheat crop sown on bed. The size of beds on which wheat crop was sown in 5 rows. During the field trials of machine moisture content, bulk density and cone index of experimental field were observed, respectively. The crop parameters recorded during the testing of machine as plant height, nos. of plants and tillers.
The machine was tested with a 35 hp tractor for application of fertilizer at the depth of 150 mm on wheat crop sown on beds in 5 rows. During the field testing the operational speed and wheel slippage of machine were 3.7 km/h and 4.69 % respectively. Average plant damage was 4.33 % in the field during the application of fertilizer at the depth of 150 mm in wheat crop sown on beds.
Fertilizer application nitrogen could affect the biomass of wild oat in spring wheat. Although the effects of fertilizers were extensively investigated in wheat; there was little information to assess the effect of fertilizer application on wheat yield loss due to wild oat interference. The knowledge of the effect of N fertilization on weed population dynamics might be use full for recommending the most convenient method and stage of the crop cycle for fertilizer application to both increase the crop yield and reduce the growth rates of weed populations.
Scope of work
Tractor operated fertilizer applicator, for application of granular urea at the root zone of wheat plants. The machine will have scope for introduction in the country because of its useful to meet the growing needs of the farmers with high level of production and productivity and increase the use efficiency of urea. Top dressing of Nitrogen to the wheat crops results emission of nitrogen gas to the atmosphere and placement is not in the proper root zone thus to reduce the loss of nitrogen in to atmosphere and increased the utilization efficiency.
The cost of application in foliar application of granular urea in top dressing by labours was Rs. 270/ha, Rs. 540/ha and the cost operation for tractor operated fertilizer was applicator of six rows has been estimated as Rs. 650/ha. The savings in granular urea were 8.74 and 2.76 kg/ha by using the tractor operated fertilizer applicator as compared to broadcast and foliar application. This saving of fertilizer of Rs. 721 and Rs. 216/ha as compared to there to method. Thus tractor operated fertilizer applicator saving of Rs 341 and Rs 611/ha. For the application of fertilizer at 150 mm below the soil surface as compared to broadcast and foliar application methods.
Results indicated that the equipment performed well in laboratory and also in the field. The machine operated with a 35 hp tractor performed very and efficiently for the placement of urea at the depth of 150 mm below the soil surface. It saved the fertilizer, fuel, and time resulted increased in yield, use efficiency of nitrogen, saving in fertilizer by placing near the root zone of wheat plant below the soil. It prevented the loss of nitrogen to atmosphere.
1. Blackshaw, R.E., L.J. Molnar and H.H. Janzen, 2004. Nitrogen fertilizer timing and application method affect weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Weed Sci., 52: 614-622.
2. Chandy, K.T. 1978. Agricultural & Environmental Education. Fertilizers Application & Efficient Use Booklet No. 23.
3. Desai, R.M. and C.R. Bhatia. 1978. Nitrogen uptake and nitrogen harvest index in durum wheat cultivars varying in their grain protein concentration. Euphytica. 27:561-566.
4. Fertilizer Manual 1998. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, International Fertilizer Development Center;
5. Godwin, R. J. and Spoor, G. 1981. The design and performance for the subsoil placement of fertilizer. Paper No., 81-1091.
6. Jagdishwar Sahay, 1971. Elements of Agriculture Engineering, 1th Edition. Agro Book Agency New Chitragupta Nagar Patna-20, pp.223-238.
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