Varietal Wealth of Pineapple in India
Author: Dr Jai Prakash
Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-12
Corresponding author email: email@example.com
Pineapple (Ananas comosus L) is one of the commercial fruit crops of India. The beauty and virtue of this "Golden Queen" have been extolled by many poets all over the globe. Pineapple is believed to be originated from Paraguay and reached India in 16th century. Pineapple is a natural crop and it is most important for prevailing agro-ecological condition Tropical and North Eastern part of India. A limited number of varieties are grown in different part of country.
A large number of varieties are grown in different parts of India. Of these Important varieties are cayenne, Red Spanish, Singapore Spanish, Giant Kew, Queen, Mauritius Jaldhup, Lakhat and Baruipur local.
Kew: The plants are vigorous and leaves are long with straight margins. The upper surface is dark green with a superficial brownish-red mottling and the lower surface is silvery Grey or ash- Grey in colour. Leaves often have a short sector of small spines at the tip and also at the base, near its attachment to the stem, where they are irregularly arranged. Fruits weight 1.5-2.5kg, and is oblong in shape, slightly tapering towards the crown. Eyes are broad and shallow, making fruits more suitable for canning.
Queen: It is most popular cultivar of Tripura. The plants are dwarf in stature and compact, habit of growth and bluish green foliage. The leaves are short stiff, spiny along the margins, and thickly covered with a whitish bloom on both surfaces. Fruit weighs 0.9-1.3 kg. Peduncle is short, fruit lets or eyes are small, prominent, deep set. The total soluble solids content varies from 15 to 190 brix and acidity between 0.56 and 0.62%. The slips are 0-4 and suckers are 0-3 and both are smaller in size than those of cayenne.
Mauritius: The fruits are of medium size and are of two types, deep yellow and red. Fruits of yellow oblong, fibrous and medium sweet compared to red type. It is exclusively grown for table purpose. Leaves are yellowish green, spiny throughout the margin. Crown also is spiny in both the types. Fruit weight 0.8-1.5kg. peduncle is short, fruit lets or eyes are small, prominent. The total soluble solids content varies from 14 to 160 brix and acidity between 0.65 and 0.72%.
Amritha: It is a selection from a cross of Kew x Ripley Queen and developed from KAU, Trichur, Kerala. The leaves are short stiff, spiny along the margins, and thickly covered with a whitish bloom on both surfaces. Frits are similar to queen and suitable for table purpose. It ripes 10days late compare to queen. Fruit weight 0.8-1.1kg. peduncle is short, fruit lets or eyes are small, prominent, deep set. The total soluble solids content varies from 16 to 18° brix and acidity between 0.5 and 0.6%.
PQM-I (Tripura Anananas):
It is a natural mutant selected from the cultivar queen at ICAR research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre. The leaves are vigours, spiny along the margins, and thickly covered with a reddish bloom on both surfaces. Fruits are suitable for both table & processing purpose. It ripens late during August -September compare to queen. Fruit weight 0.9-1.4 kg. Peduncle is short, fruit lets or eyes are small, prominent, deep set. The total soluble solids content varies from 14 to 160 brix and acidity between 0.6 and 0.8%.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am working as a senior scientist at IARI New Delhi.