In then point of fact, biotechnology has really emerged as one of the most astonishing, praise worthy, technical and innovative science of the day. Not only that it has opened new vistas into the exploration of genetics and bioinformatics but has also brought considerable improvements in other allied and associated fields of biological, medical and life sciences. As a matter of fact, biotechnology has extended its work by combining various sort of biological sciences and thus adding new challenges to these allied sciences as well. When we talk about biotechnology, the miraculous milestone achieved by scientists in this field is regarded as the human genome project. It can be said very confidently and bases on evidences that the human genome project was the biggest hallmark achieved in the field of biotechnology. Not only because it was such a complex, high budgeted and innovative project but also because due to the success of this project, the scientists around the world have been able to make considerable research in this field. Almost all the significant researches regarding human physiological aspects owe to the success of human genome project. Had this project not been successful, we would have seen less than half of the total progress in biotechnology than what we see today.

The human genome project or HGP was a scientific project of international level aimed at determining the arrangement of base pairs making DNA molecule. The project was launched in the year 1990 and was completed by the year 2003, taking about 13 years in total. The project was actually carried out under the authority of U.S department of energy and the National institute of health. The main goals of the project involved the identification of genes. If you are a biological student or researchers, you must well know that there are a huge number of genes in our genetic makeup. The project aimed at identification of around 25,000 genes and creating a database for them. Other significant goals of the project involved determining the sequence of chemical base pairs. As a matter of fact, it is a day light fact proved after repeated and trusted experiments that the DNA molecule actually consists of specified and well defined sequences of four bases making 2 pairs. Not only that there pairing is specific but their sequence of occurrence is also very specific and defined. Therefore, the project aimed at determining these particular occurring sequences of some 3 billion base pairs responsible for the structure of DNA molecule. Besides, the other important goals aimed and achieved through this project involved the formation of proper and usable data base of all this obtained information about the genes and the base pairs forming the DNA molecule. The scientists were of the view that if they become successful in getting all this information then by creating a tactful data base of all this information would mean that they'll able to unveil thousands of genetic issues associated with all human life and in general with all sort of life on earth. Thus this was considered to be the most important part of the project to get the details of 3 billion bases and 25,000 genes into a sort of usable data. Another significant issue associated with the human genome project was the case of some ethical and legal issues raised by some critics on this project. Dealing with all these legal, social and ethical issues and concerns was also a significant part of this project. This was however done very tactfully utilizing all the possible means and resources available to the authorities governing the supervision of this project.

Therefore, it can be stated very confidently and in the point of fact, very fairly, that the human genome project was truly one of the miraculous project completed by the experts and scientists. The outcomes of this projects including development of such therapies helpful curing many inherited and mutational disorders, curing physiological disorders like that of diabetes, determining the genes responsible for certain traits in human beings and many others have actually made the significance of this project very valued and worthy. This is why the experts generally grade human genome project a remarkable achievement in the field of biotechnology.

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