Microbiological testing and evaluation.
Quantitative and qualitative testing is today is necessary to ensure that the test material has all the properties and it pass all criteria & is suitable, safe and efficient for its intended use. Today microbiological testing are performed in medical field, pharmaceuticals, chemical industries, diary industries, agricultural field, clinics etc. Since microorganisms are both useful for human being and at the same time they also exhibit some properties with which they develop disease. The microorganism which is capable of establishing in host and develops disease is known as pathogen. Many microorganisms are useful for human being and they produce valuable biomolecules like proteins, vitamins and also antibiotics which in itself is useful to cure diseases.
With such a vast properties of microorganism, there is a lot of requirement for their evaluation and testing at various appropriate stages with in different industries and sectors. In clinics the testing and identification of microorganism in blood sample of patient helps in disease diagnostics and further in the appropriate treatment of the disease. Various pathogens and their antigenic properties are identified to know which organism is present in patient and causing disease. The medicine which acts on the identified microorganism is given for the right treatment of the disease.
In Chemical and pharmaceutical industries, the medicines & different semi-synthetic drugs are produced. Testing, qualitative and quantitative evaluation at each step of production is critical to control the quality of the drug and to ensure that it is pure and has all properties as required in the standard product. These includes but not limited to raw material testing for bioburden (Load of microorganism within the raw material prior to any treatment like sterilization), then intermediate or in-process testing to check that the quality is maintained during processing and production of the same. Once the drug is manufactured completed, it is again tested for its final properties and for its quality, safety and efficiency. The quality of the same is done by its action on the microorganism also know as antibiotic sensitivity test. Its safety is detected by knowing its level of impurities as well as its purity if it is pure form the organism from which it is prepared.
In agriculture field, many bio-fertilizers are produced form microorganism and the tests are performed to know the purity of the culture used for its production. Also the effect or action of biofertilizer on the pest, infectious bacteria and fungi is tested and evaluated at every stage of the production. The purity is very important when biofertilizers are produced to have the effectiveness and quality in the product being sold. Biofertizers are either in solid or liquid stage therefore the water activity is also a important aspect in their production and it is being tested such that the shelf life is maintained as per label claim.
In dairy industry the microorganism play a very important role. They are helpful in performing fermentation of milk to produce lot of by products and fermented products which are being sold today all over the world. The purity is tested to avoid unwanted organisms in the product. The capability and also the shelf life of the product is tested by means of methods known as microbial efficiency test. The ability of preservatives is tested to kill or at least hold the growth known as cidal or static properties of preservatives respectively. The known microorganism and its known quantity are tested against the preservative used in the product and its efficacy is evaluated. Also the critical stages of production which are most susceptible to contamination are controlled by means of proper testing, such methods are being developed in food and diary industries with new innovations. Such method is known as Hazardous analysis and critical control point (HACCP). Thus evaluation and testing of microorganisms is very important and critical when it comes to various fields like clinics, medical, pharmaceutical, diary, agriculture, etc. The testing and evaluation of various microbiological properties gives assurance of safety, efficiency and quality of products.
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