Authors: Chitralekha Shyam
PhD Scholar, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics
College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior (M.P.)
Genomics refers to the study of structure and function of entire genome of a living organism. It has various practical applications like genome size, gene number, gene mapping, gene sequencing, gene cloning and identification of DNA marker etc. Mustard is important oilseed crop belongs to the family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae). It is mainly self-pollinating crop, however, up to 30% out-crossing does occur under natural field conditions, depending upon wind and bee activities (Rakow & Woods, 1987). It is consumed in large quantity and the production ranks second among all oilseeds in India (Chopra and Prakash, 1991). But due to the presence of undesirable long chain fatty acids like ecosenoic acid (10%) and erucic acid (50%) in the seed oil, it becomes detrimental to human health. Erucic acid increases blood chlorestrol, interferes in myocardial conductance and shortens coagulation time (Renard and Mcgregor, 1992). High levels of seed oil induce manufacturing problems during the production of condiment. So various research have carried out for improvement in Brassica spp. like QTL mapping analysis for erucic acid, marker assisted selection, gene mapping, genetic diversity analysis through SSR marker and other etc. Mustard is used as vegetables, condiments, edible oil green manure and forage. It has fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Its vegetable oil in human diet constitutes an important source of energy and have important in human health. Besides being the gastronomic delights and a source of energy, edible vegetable oils, provide fat-soluble micronutrients and essential and nonessential fatty acids, which perform various functions. Thus we need improvement of yield and quality ofBrassica. As such genomic tools have been increasing applied in Brassica spp.
Genome analysis refers to a detailed analysis of the structural and functional organization of the complete genome. Structural genomics determines the size of the genome of a species and also
number of genes present in the entire genome of a species.
|S. N.||Species||Sources||Genome size (MBp)|
|1||B. rapa||Var. rapifera turnip||511|
|2||B. nigra||Black mustard||468|
|3||B. oleracea||Var. italica broccoli||599-618|
|Var. capitata cabbage||603|
|Var. botrytis cauliflower||628-662|
|4||B. juncea||Brown mustard||1068|
|6||B. carinata||Ethiopian mustard||1284|
Benefits of Genomics
Genomic research has been done on various crop plants. It have carried out for improvement in Brassica spp. like Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate Components, evaluation of genetic diversity thrrough RAPD and SSR marker, molecular Marker assisted selection, genetics of erucic acid content, mapping and tagging of agronomically important genes etc.
Applications of genomics
Genomics has various practical uses in crop plants like ,
- Genome size
- Gene number
- Gene mapping
- Gene sequencing
- Evolution of crop plants
- Gene cloning
- Identification of DNA markers
- Marker assisted selection
- Transgenic breeding
- Construction of linkage maps
- Quantitative trait loci mapping
I assessed that genomic tools are very important for improving mustard crop plant and others. We need improvement of yield and quality ofBrassica. As such genomic tools have been increasing applied in Brassica spp. Current status regarding potential of some tools for tracing evolution of crop plants, germplasm enhancement through molecular markers, QTL mapping for different traits, gene mapping, gene sequencing, gene cloning, construction of linkage maps discussed and presented.
Chopra, V.L. and Prakash, S. 1991. Taxonomy, distribution and cytogenetics. Brassica Oilseed in Indian Agriculture. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Pp- 257-304.
Rakow, G. and Woods, D.L. 1987. Outcrossing in rape and mustard under Saskatchewan prairies conditions. Can J Plant Sci. 67: 147-151.
Renard. S and Mcgregor, S. 1992. Antithrombogenic effect of erucic acid poor rapeseed oil in the rats. Rev. Fr. Crop Cros. 23: 393-396.
Singh, P. 2012. Plant breeding (molecular and new approaches). Kalyani publishers, Ludhiana. Pp- 247-255.
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