Vitamin B12 or Cobalamin binds to intrinsic factor for absorption. Deficiency results from decreased parietal cell secretion of intrinsic factor in the stomach, causing pernicious megaloblastic anemia. This is due to decreased IF, and therefore decreased absorption of vitamin B12. It contains cobalt in the center of a corrin ring. Methylcobalamin contains a methyl group, and cyanocobalamin contains CN on a coordinate area. Involved in the following reactions such as Homocysteine - methylcobalamin to form Methionine and Methylmalonyl CoA - deoxyadenosylcobalamin to form Succinyl CoA. Vitamin B12 deficiency will also cause neurologic problems.

Niacin is a coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions, and is reduced to NADH and NADHP. Tryptophan is able to form niacin. A deficiency results in Pellagra manifested by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.

Biotin is an imidazole derivative. Act as a carrier of carbon dioxide in carboxylation reactions. It is found in nearly all food. The only deficiency may appear with eating a diet of raw egg whites. Avidin prevents absorption by binding to biotin. It is required in the formation of Malonyl CoA.

Folic Acid is made of p-aminobenzoic acid bound to a pterin ring and glutamic acids. The active form is Tetrahydrofolate, which is formed by reducing folate with the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. PABA analogs (sulfanilamide) will inhibit synthesis of folate. THF transfers carbon for the synthesis of purines, thymidylic acid and amino acids. Deficiency results in megaloblastic anemia. Frequently seen in alcoholics and pregnant women; very common. Pregnant women must receive folic acid early in fetal development to avoid neural tube defects and growth failure. One of these defects is presented by Spina Bifida. It is recommended to begin vitamin supplements before conception.

Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C is a reducing agent oxidized by oxygen. It acts as a cofactor of collagen. It helps in the absorption of iron by reducing Ferric to the ferrous form in the stomach. Excretion of increased levels of vitamin C may result in kidney stones by calcium salt deposits of oxalate which is a breakdown product. Deficiency results in scurvy. A disease caused by a deficient hydroxylation of collagen and therefore, connective tissue problems which include sore gums and loose teeth, as well as anemia.

Panthothenic Acid is a part of Coenzyme A that participates in the transfer of acyl groups. Pantothenic acid is a growth factor that is a part acyl carrier protein.
All these Vitamins must be in their tolerable amounts in the body just enough for our needs. Either deficiency or toxicity of these vitamins causes bad effects in the human body. There are different sources of these vitamins. It can be in the food we take, in the medicines and it can be in concentrated forms such as the vitamin tablets we buy in our pharmacies.

Here are some diseases caused by deficiency of you vitamins.

Vitamin A deficiency causes Xerophthalmia and Night Blindness. A deficiency in Vitamin D causes Rickets in children and Osteomaulacia in adults. Vitamin E deficiency causes defects usually in premature infants. Vitamin K deficiency is unusual for an adult but causes Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, Decreased prothrombin level, prolonged coagulation time; and Vitamin B1 causes Beri-beri characterized by dry skin and irritability, with eventual death. Vitamin B2 deficiency causes Dermatitis, Glossitis, and Cheilosis. A deficient Vitamin B6 is associated with Isoniazid anti-tuberculosis treatment. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes pernicious megaloblastic anemia from lack of intrinsic factory. A deficiency of Niacin causes Pellagra manifested by Dermatitis, Diarrhea, and Dementia. Deficiency in Biotin causes Lethargy, acidosis, and dehydration; increased urine levels of propionic acid, and increased intermediates of isoleucine intermediates. Folate deficiency causes Megaloblastic anemia, Neural tube defects in children of deficient pregnant mothers. Lastly, Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid deficiency disease is called Scurvy presented by Connective tissue problems; sore gums and loose teeth.

All of these diseases cause tremendous down glide in a human beings life. As it is taught, prevention is always better than cure. These diseases can be prevented by observing a proper diet and a habit of regular exercise. Avoiding those risky lifestyles such as binge drinking and cigarette smoking also helps prevent such deficiencies in the vitamins. Taking synthetic and commercialized, concentrated vitamins will also be very helpful in providing you with the sufficient amounts of vitamins in your body.

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