Biologics generally refers to biology or to life and living things. It is a class of medication (is something that treats, prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease or the act of treating with medicines or remedies). It includes an extensive range of medicinal products in medicine created by biological processes. The medicinal products includes blood, vaccine, allergenic (is related to or having the effect of an allergen) gene therapy (is the insertion of normal or genetically altered genes into cells usually to replace defective genes especially in the treatment of genetic disorders), blood components, somatic cells, recombinant therapeutic proteins and tissues.
Biologics can be framed as;
• Nucleic acids
• Living entities (such as tissues and cells)
• Complex combination of these above substances
Isolation of biologics:
Biologics are sequestered from a multiplicity of natural sources such as human, animal, or microorganism. It may be created by biotechnology methods and other medicinal technologies. Biologics that are cellular and gene-based are the most essential forefront of biomedical (is related to the activities and applications of science to clinical medicine) research. There are no other cures available for the treatment of various medical disorders and in order to overcome these situations cellular and gene-based biologics can be used to handle a variety of medical conditions.
Recombinant DNA technology by means of Biologics:
As it is mentioned in the above context, the word "biologics" can be used to state to a comprehensive range of biological products in the field of medicine. However, in a restrictive manner the word biologics is used for a class of medication produced by recombinant DNA technology by means of biological processes. These medications are commonly of three types:
1. There are some substances or materials that are almost same to the body's own key signaling proteins. For example, blood-production stimulating protein erythropoietin (is a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells), or biosynthetic (is the production of a chemical compound by a living organism) human insulin and its analogues, or growth hormone.
2. Monoclonal antibodies (any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by a single clone of cells or a cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules) are similar to the antibodies. These antibodies are used by human immune system to fight with viruses and bacteria. But the monoclonal antibodies are "custom-designed" which means that they are designed through hybridoma (is a hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a lymphocyte and a tumour cell; used to culture a specific monoclonal antibody) or any other methods. These monoclonal antibodies are just made to target any specific cell type or to stabilize or block any given substance in the body.
For example, Remicade a monoclonal antibody used to cure psoriatic arthritis (is a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis), psoriasis (is a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences), Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis (is a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint) and breast cancer.
3. Receptor constructs or fusion proteins that are generally based on a naturally-occurring receptor interconnected to the immunoglobulin (is a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response) frame. In terms of pharmacology (is the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects), immunoglobulin-structure instructs stability whereas receptor are responsible to provide the construct with complete specificity.
For example, immunoglobin CTLA-4 fusion protein technology is used to cure rheumatoid arthritis and to cure chronic plaque psoriasis; immunoglobin G1 fusion protein technology is used.
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