Biomedical (is related to the activities and applications of science to clinical medicine) engineering is the use of engineering principles and methods to the medical field. The convention of this field is to overcome the breach between medicine and engineering. For the improvement of healthcare monitoring, therapy and diagnosis, biomedical engineering combines the design and problem solving abilities of engineering with biological and medical sciences. It is a recently emerging field which emerges its peculiar disciplines with many other engineering fields. For example, an evolution being an interdisciplinary field is specialized among already-established fields and is common as a new field.

Sub-disciplinary fields of biomedical engineering:

Biomedical engineering work is basically about research and development. It crosses a broad range of sub-fields. Theses sub-disciplinary fields include;

• Bio-mechanics (is the branch of biophysics that deals with the mechanics of the human or animal body; especially concerned with muscles and the skeleton or the functioning of a particular part of a body).

• Bio-materials (is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems).

• Bio-mechatronics (is an applied interdisciplinary science that aims to integrate mechanical elements, electronics and parts of biological organisms).

• Bionic (also known as biomimicry, biomimetics, bio-inspiration, biognosis, and close to bionical creativity engineering) is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology).

• Clinical engineering (is a specialty within Biomedical engineering responsible primarily for applying and implementing medical technology to optimize healthcare delivery).

• Bio-instrumentation (is the application of electronics and measurement principles and
techniques to develop devices used in diagnosis and treatment of disease).

• Bio-nanotechnology (usually refers to intersect between biotechnology and nanotechnology).

• Medical imaging (is the technique and process used to create images of the human body (or parts and function thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology)).

• Cellular engineering (is a new field that addresses issues related to understanding and manipulating cell structure-function relationships).

• Tissue engineering (a sub-field of bio materials, It is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions).

• Genetic engineering or genetic modification (is the direct human manipulation of an organism's genetic material in a way that does not occur under natural conditions. It involves the use of recombinant DNA techniques, but does not include traditional animal and plant breeding or mutagenesis).

• Neural engineering ((also known as Neuroengineering) is a discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs).

• Pharmaceutical engineering (is a branch of Pharmaceutical Technology that involves development, commercialisation and manufacturing components within the pharmaceuticals industry).

• System physiology (is the science of the mechanical, physical, bioelectrical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. Physiology focuses principally at the level of organs and systems).

• Rehabilitation engineering (is the systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, adapt, test, evaluate, apply, and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by individuals with disabilities).

• Orthopaedic bioengineering (builds upon strong programs in biomechanics and biomaterials. The field embraces the study of joint function, prosthetic replacement, and a broad range of orthopaedic related research such as electrical stimulation effects on fracture repair, injury, repair, and regeneration of tendons and ligaments, and biomechanicial effects on bone cells).

Biomedical engineers have solved the problem for the patients that need organ transplants. Now they are researching on tissue engineering to create artificial organs. They have grown tracheas and jawbones from human stem cells. They have successfully grown artificial urinary bladders in laboratories and transplanted into human patients.

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