Plant Breeding Scope, Objectives and History
Authors: Jadhav Shrinivas Shripatrao, Patil Ramanand Vankatrao, Talekar Nilesh Suryakantrao

Plant Breeding Introduction
Plant breeding can be defined as an art, a science, and technology of improving the genetic makeup of plants in relation to their economic use for the mankind.
Plant breeding is the art and science of improving the heredity of plants for the benefit of mankind.
Plant breeding deals with the genetic improvement of crop plants also known as science of crop improvement.
Science of changing and improving the heredity of plants

Objectives of Plant Breeding
Higher yield
Improved quality
Abiotic resistance
Biotic resistance
Change in maturity Duration / Earliness
Determinate Growth
Desirable Agronomic Characteristics
Non-shattering characteristics
Synchronous Maturity
Photo and Thermo insensitivity
Wider adaptability
Undesirable effects :Reduction in Diversity, Narrow genetic base
Danger of Uniformity, Undesirable combinations
Increased susceptibility to minor diseases and pests

History and development of plant breeding
Domestication may be the most basic method of plant breeding
700 BC - Babylonians and Assyrians pollinated date palm artificially
1717 - Thomas Fair Child - produced the first artificial hybrid, popularly known as Fair Child's mule, by using carnation with sweet William
1760-1766 - Joseph koelreuter, a German, made extensive crosses in tobacco.
1759-1835 - Knight was perhaps the first man to use artificial hybridization to develop several new fruit varieties.
1856 - Vilmorin developed the progeny test and used this method successfully in the improvement of sugar beets.
1900 - Nilson-Ehle, his associates developed the individual plant selection method in Sweden.
1903 - Johannsen proposed the pureline theory that provided the genetic basis for individual plant selection.
The science of genetics began with the rediscovery of Gregor Johan Mendel's paper in 1900 by Hugo de veris, Tshermark and Correns which was originally published in 1866.
The modern plant breeding methods have their bases in the genetic and cytogenetic principles.
Numerous workers who determined the various modes of inheritance have contributed to the development and understanding of plant breeding.
The discovery of chromosomes as carriers of genes has led to the development of specialized plant breeding methods for chromosome engineering.
The totipotency of plant somatic and gametic cells allows regeneration of complete plants from single cells. This, coupled with the development of recombinant DNA technology, has enabled the transfer of desirable genes from any organism into plants.
Crop varieties developed in this manner are already in cultivation in several countries.

History of plant breeding in India
1871 - The Government of India created the Department of Agriculture
1905 - The Imperial Agricultural Research Institute was establish in Pusa, Bihar
1934 - The buildings of the institute damaged in earthquake1936 - Shifted to New Delhi
1946 - Name was changed Indian Agricultural Research Institute
1901-05 - Agricultural Colleges were established at Kanpur, Pune, Sabour, Llyalpur, Coimbatore
1929 - Imperial council of Agricultural Research was established
1946 - Name was change to Indian Council Agricultural Research
1921 - Indian Central Cotton Committee was established - Notable researches on breeding and cultivation of cotton. Eg : 70 improved varieties of cotton
1956 - Project for intensification of regional research on cotton, oilseeds and millets (PIRRCOM) was initiated to intensify research on these crops - located at 17 different centres through out the country
1957 - All India Coordinated maize improvement project was started with objective of exploiting heterosis
1961 - The first hybrid maize varieties released by the project ICAR initiated coordinated projects for improvement of the other crops
1960 - First Agricultural University established at Pantnagar, Nainital, U.P.

Scientific contributions of eminent scientists
Allard and Bradshaw - G x E interaction
Recurrent Selection for SCA - Hull
Recurrent Selection for GCA - Jenkins
Dominance hypothesis - Davenport
Single Seed Descent Method - Goulden
Self incompatibility - Lewis
Vertifolia effect - Van Der Plank
Centres of diversity, Law of homologus series - Vavilov
Grater initial capital hypothesis - Ashby
Progeny test - Vilmorin
First artificial hybrid - Thomas Fairchild
Triticale - Rimpau
Mutation - Hugo de Vries
Sprophytic System of self incompatibility - Hughes and Babcock
Bulk method - Nilsson & Ehle
Raphano brassica - Karpenchenko
Heterosis - Shull
Male sterility - Jones and Davis
Father of hybrid rice - Yuan Long Ping
Self incompatibility classification - Lewis
Mechanism of insect resistance - Painter
Modified bulk method - Atkins
Components of genetic variance classification - Fischer
Male sterility in maize - Rhoades
Microcentre - Harlan
Chemical mutagen - Aurbach
Multiline concept - Jenson
Green revolution in India - M.S. Swaminathan
Semidwarf rice varieties at IRRI - T.T. Chang
Forage breeder - G.W. Burton
Forage breeder - T.J. Jenkin
Soyabean breeder - E.E. Hartwig

Famous Indian Scienitst and contribution in Plant breeding
T.S. Venkatraman - An eminent sugarcane breeder, he transferred thick stem and high sugar contents from tropical noble cane to North Indian Canes. This process is known as noblization of sugarcane.
B.P. Pal - An eminent Wheat breeder,developed superior disease resistant N.P. varieties of wheat.
M.S. Swaminathan - Responsible for green revolution in India, developed high
yielding varieties of Wheat and Rice
Pushkarnath - Famous potato breeder
N.G.P. Rao - An eminent sorghum breeder
K. Ramaiah - A renowned rice breeder
Ram Dhan Singh - Famous wheat breeder
D.S. Athwal - Famous pearlmillet breeder
Bosisen - An eminent maize breeder
Dharampal Singh - An eminent oil-seed breeder
C.T. Patel - Famous cotton breeder who developed world's first cotton hybrid in 1970
V. Santhanam - Famous cotton breeder

About Author / Additional Info:
I am Ph.D. Research Scholar in Genetics and Plant Breeding, Studding in C. P. Collage of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagr Dantiwada Ahricultural University (