Protein Engineering:
Proteins are backbone and building block of all the enzymes. These proteins, in turn, made up of from basic units, called amino acids, strung in beads like form to form chain. Long chains of amino acids must be folded properly to form functional enzymes. Some enzymes consist of only one chain, whereas others are made of several branched chains. Scientists are using technology to study how proteins are formed, what the way they fold, and how they supposed to perform function. By studying the relation between the structure of a protein and functions to improve engineer the desired enzymes. Proteins may be modified by changing one or more amino acids by mutation/chemical treatment/ UV treatment to change amino acid chains fold and fit together to decide the structure of desired engineered enzymes.

Genetic Engineering:
Microorganisms may be genetically modified by using recombinant DNA technology to produce a desired enzyme under specific conditions. Small circular pieces of DNA, known as plasmids, are used to insert enzyme-producing genes into the genomes of organisms that possess desirable trait to replace the inexpensive nutrients. Therefore, both the genetically modified enzyme and the original trait will be expressed in a single recombinant microorganism.

Use of Advanced Enzyme Biotechnology for Sustainable Development:
Enzymes are advanced and green substitute as sustainable alternative to the use of harsh chemicals in industry because they mostly work under moderate temperatures, neutral pH, to reduce energy consumption which is usually required by many chemically catalyzed reactions. Engineered enzymes also need minimal water requirement and chemical waste production during all the types concerned manufacturing processes to react specifically and minimize the production of by-products which, in turn, to offer minimal risk to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Enzymes are both economically and environmentally safe because they are easily inactivated without any non degradable waste which are very difficult to be discarded. End-product enzymatic material may be eco-friendly which may be used as fertilizer/activator or inducer for numerous laboratory and agricultural uses

About Author / Additional Info:
*Corresponding author:
Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida
Sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
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