Cancer is a disease in which disorder occurs in the normal process of cell division, which is controlled by the genetic material (DNA) of the cell (1). There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected. Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors. Tumors can grow and interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems and they can release hormones that alter body function.
Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. There are different types of breast cancer, with different stages (spread) I and II, aggressiveness, and genetic makeup. With best treatment, 10-year disease-free survival varies from 98% to 10%. Treatment includes surgery, drugs (hormone therapy and chemotherapy), and radiation. Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer (10.4% of all cancer incidence, both sexes counted) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).
A. Post lumpectomy breast irradiation greatly reduces the risk of recurrence in the breast.
B. The removal of the primary tumor by some form of lumpectomy with or without irradiating the breast.
C. Mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy, with or without further irradiation.
D. Tamoxifen is beneficial in postmenopausal woman when used alone or when combine with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Primary breast cancer can be cure by these treatments but not effective to cure the lives of human. So we are looking for some plant originated anticancer compound which will help us to in the treatment of cancer.
The Responsible Factor of Breast Cancer in Human:
The responsible factor for the breast cancer is the HER receptor family. HER family receptors are located on the surface of the cell. Each receptor has an extracellular and intracellular domain. These are also known as human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (HER, also known as ErbB) family consists of four receptors EGFR (HER1 or ErbB-1), HER2 (ErbB-2), HER3 (ErbB-3) and HER4 (ErbB-4) binding more than 10 polypeptide ligands between them. The HER receptors play a crucial role in breast cancer and many other types of cancer, generating much interest in understanding their individual and combinatorial actions. These receptors belong to subclass I of the super family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) which are transmembrane receptors with an intrinsic ability to phosphorylate their tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domains to transduce signals. However, HER2 and HER3 are not autonomous since HER2 has no known ligand and the kinase activity of HER3 is defective. These two receptors can form heterodimeric complexes with each other as well as other HER receptors to generate potent signals. Targeting HER2 has been the main focus in breast cancer although increasingly, inhibition of EGFR in combination with HER2 blockage is seen to be important in breast cancer therapy.
5-Fluorouracil,Mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, ifosfamide.Vinca alkaloids,Vincristine,Vinblastine,Vinorelbine,Taxoldoxorubicin,Epirubicin,Bleomycin and Many of the anticancer drugs such as AG 1478, Iressa, Gifitnib, Herceptin, Cyclophosphamide etc. were used in the cancer treatments as alone and in the combination, but no one can be more successful to treat the breast cancer. In the combination AG 1478, Iressa is effective for to treat breast cancer. In the present status Scientist were mainly focusing on the plant based medicine. Plants have been always the main source for the treating various types of diseases. They have the chemical compounds which work alone and together to treat the diseases. There are so many plant derived anticancer compound like Vinblastin, Vincristine, Lapochol etc. These anticancer compounds are found in different family of plants.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am Goldy Yadav, M.Tech Biotechnology.Bhopal