Authors: Vyomesh S. Patel*, Jalpesh S. Patel and Y. M. Shukla
Department of Biochemistry, BACA, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388110, India.
Cultivar development through plant breeding has reached to new horizon of transgenic technology to meet the current need for the crop development. CRISPR/Cas technology has made a breakthrough in the field of genome editing which has added new stars in transgenic technology. This article mainly deals with basic concept of CRISPR/Cas technology and its mechanism along with various types of CRISPR/Cas system. Advantage of CRISPR/Cas technology over other existing tools for genome editing has also been outlined. Applications of CRISPR/Cas technology in genome editing also has been summarized at the end of this article.
Genome editing of model organisms is essential for gene function analysis and is thus critical for human health and agricultural production. The current technologies used for genome modification include ZFN (zinc-finger nuclease), meganucleases, TALEN (Transcription activator- like effecter nucleases), etc. Recently, a new technology for genome modification, CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/ Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems, has been developed. CRISPR/Cas systems are adaptive defense systems in prokaryotic organisms to fight against alien nucleic acids. Compared with protein-guided technologies like ZFN and TALEN, CRISPR/Cas system is much easier to implement, as only short guide RNAs need to be customized to target the genes of interest. Up to now, the CRISPR/Cas system has been successfully applied to efficient genome editing in many eukaryotic organisms including human, mice, zebra fish, fly, worm, yeast and few plants. (Miao et al., 2013).
About Author / Additional Info:
I am fond of science â€" a field full of mysteries. Presently doing research as a Ph.D. research scholar (3rd year) in the field of BIOCHEMISTRY at BACA, AAU, ANAND â€" 388110.